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2008.12.18 01:21 America's Finest City: San Diego California.

The official subreddit for San Diego California, "America's Finest City", we’re over 130,000 Strong and Serving the whole of the San Diego community (including the counties) for the sharing of information, opinion and events to bring us closer together. Local Covid-19 information regularly updated.
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2020.11.26 12:03 remote-enthusiast Collected 101 jobs (tech & non-tech)

Hello friends! These are the open remote positions I've found that were published today. See you tomorrow! Bleep blop 🤖
submitted by remote-enthusiast to remotedaily [link] [comments]


2020.11.24 22:31 Kal-El-SUPERMAN Top 10 GIANT Discoveries in North America

by Hugh Newman and Jim Vieira
January 18, 2016 from AncientOrigins Website


Jim Vieira and Hugh Newman have been working together investigating Native American stone and earthen constructions, Native oral history and the giant skeletons of North America for nearly ten years. They starred together on the History Channel TV show Search for the Lost Giants (2014) and have recently co-authored Giants On Record: America's Hidden History, Secrets in the Mounds and the Smithsonian Files (2015). Jim and his brother Bill also starred on the recently aired History Channel special Roanoke: Search for the Lost Colony (2015). Jim is a stonemason and lives in Ashfield, Massachusetts. Hugh is an explorer, antiquarian and author of Earth Grids: The Secret Patterns of Gaia's Sacred Sites (Wooden Books 2008). He has several articles published on Ancient Origins website and has been a regular guest on History Channel's Ancient Aliens. He lives in Glastonbury, England. His websites are www.megalithomania.co.uk and www.hughnewman.co.uk



https://preview.redd.it/zh3efp9badd41.jpg?width=500&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=bbd4139f670c64a3259283fb5bff17287827da2f

The Iroquois, the Osage, the Tuscaroras, the Hurons, the Omahas, and many other North American Indians all speak of giant men who once lived and roamed in the territories of their forefathers. All over what is now the U.S. are traditions of these ancient giants. 1

Over 1000 accounts of seven-foot and taller skeletons have reportedly been unearthed from ancient burial sites over a two-hundred-year period in North America.
Newspaper accounts, town and county histories, letters, scientific journals, diaries, photos and Smithsonian ethnology reports have carefully documented this.
These skeletons have been reported from coast to coast with strange anatomic anomalies such as double rows of teeth, jawbones so large as to be fit over the face of the finder, and elongated skulls, documented in virtually every state.

Figure 1: Map of giant reports in North America. Created by Cee Hall.
Smithsonian scientists identified at least 17 skeletons that stood at over seven feet in their annual reports, including one example that was 8 feet tall, and a skull with a 36-inch circumference reported from Anna, Illinois in the Smithsonian Annual Report of 1873, (an average human skull is about 20 inches in circumference).
The Smithsonian Institution is mentioned dozens more times as the recipient of enormous skeletons from across the entire United States.
The skeletons mentioned no longer seem to exist regardless of their actual size, and the remaining ones that were on display were removed and repatriated by NAGPRA (Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act).
While the authors certainly support this law, it does present a moral and ethical conundrum in terms of trying to ascertain the proof everyone wants to see - physical evidence of giants.


Figure 2: Selection of news accounts featured in the book

In this unique Top Ten, we look at some examples of giant skeletons that were reported from across ancient North America (although we warn you now that Number 1 is so large, we admit it may not be authentic). Our countdown begins at one of the most important mound sites in America, and quite possibly the world.


Figure 3: Various sized skulls found at Potomac Creek, Stafford County, Virginia, 1937.

TOP TEN GIANTS
  1. Serpent Mound, Ohio, 1890s - 7 ft tall skeleton


Serpent Mound survey by Squire and Davis.

The Great Serpent Mound is a 1,370ft long prehistoric effigy mound located near Peebles that has been thoroughly researched by Ross Hamilton, who has written extensively about its mysteries and the giants discovered in the area.
Recent radiocarbon analysis dates it to around 321 BC. This puts it in the realm of the Adena civilization who were present in the area at this time.
In the 1890s, Professor Frederic Ward Putnam excavated some of the mounds next to Serpent Mound and found only 6ft tall skeletons, but a postcard showing one 7 feet in height was recently rediscovered by researcher Jeffrey Wilson.
It may have been one of those excavated by Putnam, as he was the only person to dig at the site.
Ross first published this in his book A Tradition of Giants, and it clearly states it was from Serpent Mound on the postcard, but there is still debate as to where this photo of a 7ft skeleton was actually taken.
Notice that the legs are cut off at the knees, so is "7ft" what we actually see, or is it an estimation if he had his lower legs and feet attached? Could it have been more like 8 feet tall if the shins and feet were intact?


The 7 ft skeleton from Serpent Mound cut off at the knees. Courtesy of Jeffrey Wilson.

  1. Cresap Mound, West Virginia, 1959 - 7ft 2in skeleton In 1959, Dr. Donald Dragoo, the curator for the Section of Man at the Carnegie Museum unearthed a 7 feet 2 inch skeleton during the complete excavation of the Cresap Mound in Northern West Virginia:
"This individual was of large proportions. When measured in the tomb his length was approximately 7.04 feet. All of the long bones were heavy."

7ft 2 inch skeleton with top part of skeleton burnt.


Ground Plan of Cresap Mound showing Clay floor level and below.The giant skeleton is on the middle right.

Dragoo published a photo of the actual skeleton in his book so there is no doubt it was authentic.
Dragoo joins many other university-trained anthropologists and archaeologists who reported discovering skeletons over seven feet in length in burial mounds, often with anatomical anomalies.
A few of the professionals reporting these skeletal finds were,


8. Mounds in Iowa, 1897 - 7ft 6in skeleton This account from The Worthington Advance (November 18, 1897) describes the ethnological work of the Smithsonian Institution's Division of Eastern Mounds, and quoted the Director of the Bureau of Ethnology at the time, John Wesley Powell.
The image below accompanied the news report.
"It is a matter of official record that in digging through a mound in Iowa the scientists found the skeleton of a giant, who, judging from actual measurement, must have stood seven feet six inches tall when alive.
The bones crumbled to dust when exposed to the air."


Illustration showing the excavation of a giant skeleton.

  1. Steelville, Missouri, 1933 - 8ft skeleton As part of the Search for the Lost Giants show, Jim and fellow researcher James Clary investigated the following account that had this heading:
"An Ancient Ozark Giant Dug Up Near Steelville: Strange discovery made by a boy looking for arrowheads, gives this Missouri Town an absorbing mystery to ponder."
From The Steelville Ledger (June 11, 1933):
"…he turned up the complete skeleton of an 8 foot giant.
The grisly find was brought to Dr. R. C. Parker here and stretched out to its enormous length in a hallway of his office where it has since remained the most startling exhibit Steelville has ever had on public view."
While reading through the microfilm at the Steelville library three reports of the find where uncovered including the photo that shows Les Eaton, a 6-foot man, laid out next to the 8-foot skeleton in Dr. Parkers office.


Les Eaton on the floor next to the 8-foot skeleton.
The Steelville Ledger reported that the skeleton was packed up and shipped to the Smithsonian, never to be heard of again.

6. Miamisburg, Montgomery County, Ohio - 8ft 1.5 inch skeleton Miamisburg Mound is believed to have been built by the Adena Culture, anywhere between 1000 to 200 BC.
It is the largest conical burial mound in Ohio, once nearly 70 feet tall (the height of a seven-story building) and 877 feet in circumference. Hugh investigated this site in September 2012 and after talking to some researchers at the local historical society, he found there were other skeletal remains reported in the nearby area.

Old illustration of Miamisburg Mound.
Numerous skeletal remains were uncovered from the mound, including a giant jawbone and " bones of unusual size," but it was the discovery half-a-mile away that became a national sensation and was reported in The Middletown Signal, January 17, 1899 with the headline: "Bones of Prehistoric Giant Found Near Miamisburg":
"The skeleton of a giant found near Miamisburg is the cause of much discussion not only among the curious and illiterate but among the learned scientists of the world.
The body of a man more gigantic than any ever recorded in human history, has been found in the Miami Valley, in Ohio. The skeleton it is calculated must have belonged to a man 8 feet 1.5 inches in height."
Professor Thomas Wilson curator of prehistoric anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution, said the following after examining the find:
"The authenticity of the skull is beyond any doubt.
Its antiquity unquestionably great, to my own personal knowledge several such crania were discovered in the Hopewell group of mounds in Ohio. The jaws were prognathus (projecting beyond the face) and the facial index remarkably low."

Illustration of over 8-foot skeleton discovered near Miamisburg.


5. The San Diego Giant, 1895 - 8ft 4 inch mummy This fascinating discovery reports on a giant mummy found in San Diego (that is currently believed to be a hoax).
However, let's take a closer look, as there is some intrigue and inconsistency with this popular story. This first report appeared in 1895 with the sub-headings "Nine Feet High and Probably a California Indian - Measurement Well Authenticated - Other Big Men and Women of Fact and Fable Who Are Famous Types if Gigantism."
When accurately measured it turned out to be 8ft 4 inches and was,
"carefully inspected and measured by Prof. Thomas Wilson, Curator of the Department of Prehistoric Anthropology in the Smithsonian Institution, and by other scientists."


The San Diego giant was purchased by the Smithsonian for $500 (over $14,000 in today's money) in 1895, although they later claimed it was a hoax.

Thirteen years later - in 1908 - when the mummy was being exhibited, the Smithsonian ran some tests and suddenly dismissed it as a hoax, saying it was made from "gelatin."
The fact that it took that long, and after spending $500 to acquire it, plus the fact that it was "carefully inspected" by experts thirteen years earlier does suggest there may be more to this story than meets the eye.
Interestingly, Aleš Hrdlička, joined the Smithsonian in 1903, right in between the discovery and the final debunking. He was not interested in giants and made a concerted effort to eradicate them from the historical record.
It is also interesting to note that the Director of Prehistoric Anthropology, Thomas Wilson, and the ethnologist in charge W.J. McGee, were both involved in this story, and were obviously keen to make sure the Smithsonian got it back to their headquarters at an immense cost ($500 in 1895 equates to $14,285 today).
But why would they bother doing that if it was simply a sideshow hoax?
The strange twists, and Smithsonian involvement, and the immense amount of money spent on this makes this worthy of inclusion in this Top Ten.
A similar mummified giant also turned up at Spiro Mounds, Oklahoma. It measured 8ft 5 in and was on display for a few months, where it was seen by several people before it disappeared. 4

4. Catalina Island, California - 9 ft 2 inch skeleton (and other 7ft - 8ft examples) The Channel Islands off the coast of California have turned up numerous oversized skeletons.
The story is intriguing and controversial, and it stars amateur archaeologist Ralph Glidden and his bizarre museum, but before the main act, a German naturalist got the story going in 1913.
Dr. A.W. Furstenan reported unearthing an 8 ft tall skeleton with artifacts such as mortar, pestles and arrowheads on Catalina. He was told of a legend while in Mexico of a giant and noble race that lived on the Island, who existed long before the white man and had since vanished. 5
Amateur archaeologist Ralph Glidden unearthed and collected a total of 3,781 skeletons on the Channel Islands between 1919 and 1930.
Working for the Heye Foundation of New York he unearthed a 9ft 2 in skeleton and several measuring over 7 feet:
"A skeleton of a young girl, evidently of high rank, within a large funeral urn, was surrounded by those of sixty-four children, and in various parts of the island more than three thousand other skeletons were found, practically all the males averaging around seven feet in height, one being seven feet eight inches from the top of his head to the ankle, and another being 9 feet 2 inches tall."


The skeleton in the picture is 7ft 8 in example.

As part of Search for the Lost Giants, Jim and Bill Vieira visited Catalina to investigate the contents of the box, and indeed there were photos of hundreds of skeletons and skulls, excavations, artifacts, and burials.
They also uncovered an account of a 28-inch femur unearthed by Glidden on San Nicolas Island reported by the judge of Avalon, Earnest Windle.
This would make the skeleton over 8 feet tall.


An over 7-foot skeleton found on Catalina Island.

3. Beaver Lake, Ozark Caves, Arkansas, 1913 - Nearly 10 ft skeleton and huge skulls This account from an Ozark cave in Arkansas is found in The New Age Magazine (Volume 18, 1913) given by the highly regarded reporter Victor Schoffelmeyer.


Skulls of giants with cranial deformation.

During the filming of Search for the Lost Giants, the site of the cave was investigated.
It had been flooded with the damming and creation of Beaver Lake between 1960-1966.
Bill Vieira and professional scuba diver Mike Young dived into the lake and found a huge shelter cave believed to be the site of the skeletal finds.
While a 70ft stone wall was found at the entrance of the cave, showing likely human habitation, no more clues were forthcoming.
Text from the original article reads as follows:
"While the historical features of the Ozarks held our attention, by far the most fascinating discovery was one made by an aged recluse and naturalist who for ten years had lived in a shelter cave near where we camped.
'Dad' Riggins spent much of his time digging in the ashes which form the floor of many of these caves.
At a depth of more than three feet he found the remains of several giant human skeletons, including an almost perfect skull which differed in many particulars from a modern specimen. When partly joined the largest skeleton was almost ten feet tall.
'Dad' Riggins showed us hieroglyphics covering the Palisades thought to be thousands of years old."


2. Lompock Rancho, California, 1819 - 12 ft skeleton Hugh investigated this famous report back in November 2008, by visiting the area of the ranch it was discovered on.
"In 1819 an old lady saw a gigantic skeleton dug up by soldiers at Purisima on the Lompock Rancho. The natives deemed it a god, and it was reburied by direction of the padre." 8
This short report re-emerged with a broader range of details in 1833 and now various authors and websites repeat the same story.
It goes something like this:
Soldiers digging a pit for a powder magazine at Lompock Rancho, California, hacked their way through a layer of cemented gravel and found a 12ft sarcophagus.
The skeleton of a giant man about twelve feet tall was found inside. The grave was surrounded by carved shells, huge stone axes, two spears and thin sheets of porphyry (purple mineral with quartz) covering the skeleton.
These were covered with unintelligible symbols. He had a double row of teeth, both upper and lower.
The soldiers consulted a local tribe of Indians, who after going into trance, exclaimed they were geographically displaced Allegewi Indians from the Ohio Valley area.
When the natives began to attach some religious significance to the find, authorities ordered the skeleton and all the artifacts secretly reburied.
No further information is available so it is impossible to verify this information, but numerous other skeletons of this height have been reported in such newspapers at The New York Times.
Two further 12ft examples were reported in Jeffersonville, Kentucky ( The New York Times, May 22, 1871) and Barnard, Missouri ( The Providence Evening Press, September 13, 1883).
Furthermore, a 13ft example was said to have been unearthed in Janesville, Wisconsin (The Public Ledger, August 25, 1870) and even bones that were estimated to be from a skeleton 14ft tall at Etowah Mounds (The New York Times, April 5, 1886).
These are all well out of the normal range for humans but are worth noting here as these immense sizes pop up again and again in well-respected newspapers.


1. West Hickory, Pennsylvania, 1870 - 18ft skeleton The headline of this chart-topper reads: "The Cardiff Giant Outdone: Alleged Discovery of a Giant in The Oil Regions."
This report originally came from the Oil City Times in 1870 and underneath the immense armor, it revealed some startling anatomic oddities, and a skeleton that reached a staggering height (the tallest example we have come across):
"They exhumed an enormous helmet of iron, which was corroded with rust. Further digging brought to light a sword which measured nine feet in length."
The report continued that they had discovered:
"…a well-preserved skeleton of an enormous giant… The bones of the skeleton are remarkably white. The teeth are all in their places, and all of them are double, and of extraordinary size."
It was estimated to be 18 feet tall, and the bones were being prepared to be sent to New York. Clearly, however, this could be an exaggeration, as 18ft is unheard of in the historical record, but the matter-of-fact description is intriguing.
Interestingly the discovery was reported to be buried 12 feet below a mound, so it could suggest a deep antiquity, however tall he was.


The report from 1870 describing an 18-feet-tall giant skeleton.

We hope this tiny selection of accounts leaves one realizing there may be some truth to these reports (although numbers 9 and 10 cannot be verified, and they are well beyond the established scope of human height).
We do not believe they are all authentic, but what you have read here constitutes only 1% of what we have in our archive. We include 250 of these accounts in our book 'Giants On Record: America's Hidden History, Secrets in the Mounds and the Smithsonian Files.'
The genesis of the North American giants is shrouded in mystery, but we believe that they were involved in the sophisticated Mound Building cultures of the Mid-West, as royal tombs with reported enormous skeletons were often found within them.
There are many Native legends that place them in the era of the Megafauna (mammoths, mastodons, sabre-tooth tigers etc.) at around 13,000 years ago. There are dozens of oral histories that revere them as gods, and sometimes as fearsome cannibalistic warriors.
Great wars were said to have taken place between these titans, and prehistoric battlefields with oversized bones and weapons were frequently reported by early colonial farmers.
Eyewitness accounts of live giant giants were reported by English and Spanish explorers and even some of the early presidents.
Mystics such as,
...as well as the Rosicrucians and Freemasons all regarded giants as a reality.
The origins of the North American giants are hotly debated by independent researchers, academics and skeptics, but there is now enough data to begin serious research into the subject.
We cover all the theories of their origins in our new book, ranging from the Denisovans of Siberia to the Nephilim of the Bible Lands.
There is also compelling evidence that the giants may have originated within the Americas. Hundreds of Native American creation myths and oral histories attest to this, with the giants being mentioned in the stories from remote times.
One example can be found in the writings of Tuscarora Indian David Cusick in his book 'Sketches of Ancient History of the Six Nations' (1825). He states that when the Great Spirit made the people, some of them became giants.
However, most people don't believe in giants, but rather scoff at the idea, saying it's all just folklore that got mixed up and sensationalized by newspaper journalists.
We disagree, as there is ample evidence within,
Native American mythology
...to suggest otherwise.
Now is the time for academia to take a look at this data, and to investigate what really happened at the Smithsonian, as an important chapter in human history is on the verge of being lost forever.
References
Wilkins, Fate Magazine, January, 1952 Don W. Dragoo . Mounds for the dead. Annals of Carnegie Museum, Vol. 37. McDonald and Woodward / Carnegie Museum.1963. p.72 The World, October 7, 1895 Giants On Record: p.128 The Pittsburgh Press, July 20, 1913 Ogden Standard Examiner, Sunday, November 10, 1929, pg.32 The New Age Magazine, Volume 18, 1913, pg.207 Hubert Howe. The Native Races of the Pacific states of North America. 1875 Jeffrey Goodman Ph.D. American Genesis: The American Indian and the origins of modern man. Summit Books. 1981
submitted by Kal-El-SUPERMAN to conspiracy [link] [comments]


2020.11.15 19:21 FirstPastTheProust Is the GTA's GDP per capita really only on par with Orlando, Buffalo, and Jackson?

x-post from /PersonalFinanceCanada since this might be a better audience. I was looking at a breakdown of US counties and their contribution to total US GDP. This made me realize I know a whole lot about Toronto's size with respect to the Canadian economy (huge), but have never really tried to compare it to US cities.
Looking at https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/8b6a-GDP-Estimates.xlsx, I found the Toronto census metropolitan area (which includes Toronto, Peel, and York along with parts of Durham/Halton) has a 2017 GDP of 337 billion in 2007 Canadian dollars.
This Wikipedia page reports US metropolitan statistical area GDP per capita in 2009 USD. Using StatsCan's CPI data, the CPI was 111.5 in 2007 and 114.4 in 2009. So, the Toronto CMA's 2017 GDP would be 346 billion in 2009 CAD. This link puts the Toronto CMA's population at 6,346,088 in 2017. Or $54,521 GDP per capita in 2009 CAD (for reference this would be $64,815 in 2019 CAD).
We could use two methods to compare GDP across Canada and the US:
  1. Purchasing power parity. This is about how much buying power 1 CAD has relative to the USD. Typically done via a national composite "exchange" rate. StatsCan publishes PPP estimates. For 2017, 1 USD = 1.2048 CAD.
  2. Currency exchange rate. We can use the BOC's average annual exchange rate for 2017: 1 USD = 1.2986 CAD.
I'm not sure whether method 1 is appropriate here since purchasing power varies widely from city to city and I was more curious about economic output than local buying power, but we can calculate both.
Method 1 gives Toronto CMA's 2017 GDP per capita at $45,253 in 2009 USD. Method 2 puts it at $41,984.
I always knew Canadian GDP per capita skewed lower than in the US (at PPP, we are about 73% of the US). But Toronto's per-capita economic output is almost shockingly low to me. Our peer metros in the US are not at all what I'd expect and are hardly what I'd think of as dynamic, cosmopolitan cities:
Metropolitan area GDP/capita (2009 USD) Population
Jackson, Mississippi 45,390 580,166 (2018)
Lima, Ohio 45,497 108,473 (2010)
Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, New York 44,843 1,135,509 (2010)
Memphis, Tennessee 46,029 1,324,108 (2010)
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, Florida 45,807 2,608,147 (2019)
Wichita, Kansas 45,862 637,989 (2013)
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, Michigan 52,879 3,734,090 (2010)
For comparison, here are the numbers for some larger, "higher tier" US cities:
Metropolitan area GDP/capita (2009 USD) Population
San Diego-Carlsbad, California 60,517 3,095,313 (2010)
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, Oregon/Washington 63,817 2,226,009 (2010)
Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, Colorado 64,379 2,967,239 (2019)
Boston-Cambridge-Newton, Massachusetts/New Hampshire 78,465 4,552,402 (2010)
New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY/NJ/PA 71,084 19,043,386 (2010)
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, Washington 80,833 3,979,845 (2010)
San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, California 89,978 4,335,391 (2010)
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, California 128,308 1,836,911 (2010)
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, California 67,763 12,838,417 (2010)
The gap in economic output here seems immense and almost hard to believe. Did I make a mistake somewhere in my analysis? If not, it really makes me wonder what's going on.
submitted by FirstPastTheProust to CanadianInvestor [link] [comments]


2020.11.15 19:11 FirstPastTheProust Is the GTA's GDP per capita really only on par with Orlando, Buffalo, and Jackson?

I was looking at a breakdown of US counties and their contribution to total US GDP. This made me realize I know a whole lot about Toronto's size with respect to the Canadian economy (huge), but have never really tried to compare it to US cities.
Looking at https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/8b6a-GDP-Estimates.xlsx, I found the Toronto census metropolitan area (which includes Toronto, Peel, and York along with parts of Durham/Halton) has a 2017 GDP of 337 billion in 2007 Canadian dollars.
This Wikipedia page reports US metropolitan statistical area GDP per capita in 2009 USD. Using StatsCan's CPI data, the CPI was 111.5 in 2007 and 114.4 in 2009. So, the Toronto CMA's 2017 GDP would be 346 billion in 2009 CAD. This link puts the Toronto CMA's population at 6,346,088 in 2017. Or $54,521 GDP per capita in 2009 CAD (for reference this would be $64,815 in 2019 CAD).
We could use two methods to compare GDP across Canada and the US:
  1. Purchasing power parity. This is about how much buying power 1 CAD has relative to the USD. Typically done via a national composite "exchange" rate. StatsCan publishes PPP estimates. For 2017, 1 USD = 1.2048 CAD.
  2. Currency exchange rate. We can use the BOC's average annual exchange rate for 2017: 1 USD = 1.2986 CAD.
I'm not sure whether method 1 is appropriate here since purchasing power varies widely from city to city and I was more curious about economic output than local buying power, but we can calculate both.
Method 1 gives Toronto CMA's 2017 GDP per capita at $45,253 in 2009 USD. Method 2 puts it at $41,984.
I always knew Canadian GDP per capita skewed lower than in the US (at PPP, we are about 73% of the US). But Toronto's per-capita economic output is almost shockingly low to me. Our peer metros in the US are not at all what I'd expect and are hardly what I'd think of as dynamic, cosmopolitan cities:
Metropolitan area GDP/capita (2009 USD) Population
Jackson, Mississippi 45,390 580,166 (2018)
Lima, Ohio 45,497 108,473 (2010)
Buffalo-Cheektowaga-Niagara Falls, New York 44,843 1,135,509 (2010)
Memphis, Tennessee 46,029 1,324,108 (2010)
Orlando-Kissimmee-Sanford, Florida 45,807 2,608,147 (2019)
Wichita, Kansas 45,862 637,989 (2013)
Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, Michigan 52,879 3,734,090 (2010)
For comparison, here are the numbers for some larger, "higher tier" US cities:
Metropolitan area GDP/capita (2009 USD) Population
San Diego-Carlsbad, California 60,517 3,095,313 (2010)
Portland-Vancouver-Hillsboro, Oregon/Washington 63,817 2,226,009 (2010)
Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, Colorado 64,379 2,967,239 (2019)
Boston-Cambridge-Newton, Massachusetts/New Hampshire 78,465 4,552,402 (2010)
New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY/NJ/PA 71,084 19,043,386 (2010)
Seattle-Tacoma-Bellevue, Washington 80,833 3,979,845 (2010)
San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, California 89,978 4,335,391 (2010)
San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, California 128,308 1,836,911 (2010)
Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, California 67,763 12,838,417 (2010)
The gap in economic output here seems immense and almost hard to believe. Did I make a mistake somewhere in my analysis? If not, it really makes me wonder what's going on.
submitted by FirstPastTheProust to PersonalFinanceCanada [link] [comments]


2020.11.14 20:49 JauneSiriusWhut Dealer/Garage/Detailer 2

Since the original post was already getting too big (too many characters), I've split them up, so here we go! T-Z.
Taiwan
Taipei - Continental / Amazing / Unknown / M3 shop - LaFerrari / M3's / 458 / Drophead Coupe / Beetle RSI / M2 CS
Taipei - Porsche - Carrera GT
Taipei - SMS - 997 GT3 / Huracan
Taipei - Unknown - 991 GT2RS / 997 GT3 RS 4.0 / DBS Superleggera
Taipei - Unknown / Wrap - 600LT / Aventador / 675LT
Taipei - Unknown - LaFerrari / Senna
Taipei - Urban Legend - Senna / 570S / 458 Speciale
Taipei - Yun San Motors - LaFerrari / DBS Superleggera
The Netherlands
Achterveld - Italautos - Ferrari 400i / Testarossa
Almelo - First Gear - SLS AMG Black Series / F12
Almere - Noble Cars - Spyker C8 Spyder / Lot of classics
Amsterdam - Classic Car Auctions - 330 GT / Testarossa
Amsterdam - Gray Audio - 997 GT3RS 4.0 / 991 GT2RS
Amsterdam - Real Art On Wheels - DB5
Apeldoorn - Saab / Alfa Romeo - Z8 / 991 GT3 RS
Bergschenhoek - JD Customs - Maybach 57 / 458 Italia
Best - Forza Service - F40 Barchetta / 512M / 599 GTO / Enzo
Best - Van de Akker - 991 Turbo S Cabrio
Brummen - Gallery Aaldering - Lot of classics
Burgerveen - Real Art On Wheels - 458 Speciale
Eindhoven - Cito Motors - DBS Superleggera / Vanquish Volante Zagato / XJ220 / Vantage GT12
Enschede - Wiggers Mastercars - 575 Superamerica / Murcielago
Geleen - Hoefnagels - F12tdf / Carrera GT / Diablo / SLR
Hengelo - Munsterhuis - F12tdf / 575 Superamerica / F430 Scuderia
Hengelo - S2 Classic Cars - Lamborghini 400GT
Heteren - Porsche - 918 Spyder / Carrera GT / 997 GT2RS / 993 Carrera RS / 997 GT3RS
Hilversum - Kroymans Ferrari - 250 GTE
Hilversum - Mugello Engineering - Lamborghini 400GT / 550 / F430
Huizen - Eastcorner Carcleaning - 720S / Continental SuperSports
Maastricht - Porsche - 991 GT2RS
Maastricht - Race Art - F40 / Carrera GT / GTR GT3 / Shelby Cobra Replica / More collection!
Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel - Van Vliet Automotive - Veyron (blue)
Nunspeet - Wim Prins Automotive - 8C Spider / F12
Oirschot - Porsche - 997 Sport Classic
Purmerend - Custom Dreams - SLS AMG Black Series / Solarbeam Yellow S65 AMG / 991 Turbo S Mk2 Cabrio
Rijnsburg - HAI - 996 GT3 / Murcielago Roadster
Rotterdam - Porsche - PTS Green 991 Turbo S
Uithorst - Automobielfabriek - DBS
Utrecht - Louwman - 675LT / Diablo
Veghel - ASV Mercedes-Benz - SLR / G63 Brabus / SLS / G500 4x4 / AMG GT-R
Velddriel - Nino Hooymans - F12 / 599 GTB
Waardenburg - Thijs Timmermans - SLS AMG Black Series / SLR Roadster / SL65 AMG Black Series / G500 4x4 / G63 AMG 6x6 / S650 Maybach Convertible / 812 Superfast
Woerden - BMW Hans Severs - M4 GTS / Portofino
Wijchen - Auto Wijchen - Aventador SV
Turkey
Istanbul - Autobank / Narin / Levent - RS6 C8 / Taycan / F12 / Aventador
Uruguay
Montevideo - Jaguar - F-Type
USA
Arizona
Scottsdale - McLaren - Centenario
California
Beverly Hills - Ferrari - 599XX / LaFerrari (white) / Enzo (black) / F12tdf / LaFerrari (black) / 599 GTO / F40 / Enzo (yellow) / F40 LM / 250 GT Cabrio / 275 GTS
Beverly Hills - GI Automotive - Aventador SV / Widebody C7 / CLK63 AMG Black Series / 991 GT3RS
Beverly Hills - Lamborghini - Veyron Grand Sport Vitesse (orange)
Beverly Hills - McLaren - 675LT / Carrera GT / R8 GT
Beverly Hills - Pagani / Unknown - Veyron (black) / Huayra (black) / F40 / F12tdf / Huayra Roadster (white) / Huayra (white) / Huayra (grey) / Huayra (grey) / Carrera GT / Huayra (blue)
Costa Mesa - Ilusso - SLS AMG Black Series / Maybach G650 Landaulet / CCX / Enzo / Veyron SuperSports (blue) / Huayra (white) / Huayra (black) / Veyron (silver) / LaFerrari / Chiron
Los Angeles - Black & White Rental - Carrera GT / Aventador / Aventador Roadster / G550 4x4
Los Angeles - Ferrari - F12tdf / Tuned F12
Los Angeles - Platinum Motorsport - 675LT / 62S / Murcielago LP640-4 / Murcielago / Lotta Rolls
Los Angeles - Platinum Collision - 918 Spyder / Enzo / Murcielago SV / SLR / SLR Roadster
Los Angeles - Porsche - Carrera GT (grey 2x) / 997 GT3RS 4.0 / Carrera GT (black)
Los Angeles - RDB - Ford GT / Brabus G550 4x4 / Brabus G550 4x4 Pickup / Aventador / 720S
Los Angeles - Rolls-Royce / Bentley / Bugatti - 918 Spyder / Veyron (blue/black / Chiron (blue/black) / Veyron Grand Sport (silver) / Veyron (red/black) / Veyron (white) / Veyron (black) / Veyron (grey/red) / Veyron Grand Sport (white) / probably missed some
Los Angeles - Specialty Car Craft - 512TR / 675LT / SLR / Ford GT / SLR Roadster / Enzo / Murcielago SV /
Los Angeles - Sticker City - 918 Spyder (blue) / 918 Spyder (black) / Viper ACR / 458 Speciale
Los Angeles - The Auto Gallery - Aventador SV / 991 R
Newport Beach - Aston Martin - Vanquish Zagato Volante / DBS Superleggera
Newport Beach - Ferrari - Enzo / F12tdf / 599 GTO
Newport Beach - McLaren - P1 (orange) / P1 (yellow) / P1 (brown) / Senna / Senna GTR
Newport Beach - Newport Exotics - Veyron (white/blue)
Newport Beach - Pagani / Other - Huayra BC (blue) / Huayra (grey) / Huayra (blue) / Veyron (black) / Huayra (white) / Classics
Palo Alto - McLaren - F1 / Senna / P1 / GT
San Diego - Lamborghini / Bentley / Rolls Royce / McLaren - Continental GT3R / Miura / SV's / SLR Roadster / Carrera GT / Veyron (red/black) / Spyker C8 Spyder / Saleen S7
West Hollywood - Al & Ed's Autosauna - F12tdf / Dawn / 488 GTB
Connecticut
Greenwich - Ferrari / McLaren - MC12 / F40 / LaFerrari / SL65 AMG Black Series / Senna
Greenwich - Miller Motorcars / Pagani - Veyron (black/red) / Huayra BC / Vanquish Zagato Shooting Brake / Vulcan
Florida
Fort Lauderdale - Fort Lauderdale Collection - SLR 722S Roadster McLaren Edition / SLS AMG Black Series / 918 Spyder / P1 / F12tdf / Veyron (black) / F40 / Aventador SV / SLR Mansory / Veyron SuperSports (orange) / Veyron (black/red) / Veyron (black/blue)
Miami - Braman Motors - Veyron (blue/black) / Veyron SuperSports (black/orange)
Miami - Curated - Miura / Murcielago R-GT / Countach's / Diablo / 918 Spyder / F50 / CLK DTM AMG Convertible / XJ220 / EB110 / 997 GT2 RS / LaFerrari
Miami - Speedart Motorsports - F40 / Viper ACR
North Miami Beach - Prestige Imports - LaFerrari (2x) / Centenario / Huayra Roadster (grey) / Huayra (red) / 918 Spyder (silver) / CCX / Huayra (white) / Veyron (black/blue) / Vanquish Zagato / Zonda F / Veyron (black/white) / 918 Spyder (white)
Louisiana
New Orleans - Nolasport - 997 GT2 / 991 GT3RS Mk2 / Murcielago Roadster
Massachussets
Dedham - Automotive Solutions - 360 Spider / Huracan Spyder / Viper / R8 V10 Spyder
Newton - AVI - Huracan Spyder Performante / 991 GT3RS / 458 Italia / Aventador SVJ
New Jersey
Red Bank - Auto Exotica - F430 Scuderia / Aventador
New York
New York City - Manhattan Motorcars - CCX / Veyron (white) / Veyron (silveblack) / Enzo / Spyker C8 / LFA / SLR Roadster
Texas
Carrollton - RAC Performance - F12tdf
Houston - Porsche / Rolls Royce / Lamborghini - 991 GT2RS / GT3RS 4.0 / 997 GT2RS / Carrera GT
Houston - Motorwerks - 991 GT2RS / Gallardo Superlegerra / G550 4x4 / G550 4x4 Brabus / SLR
Washington
Seattle - Ferrari - 458 Speciale / F1 / F12
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2020.11.09 05:23 assessment_bot [2 Fatal] [October 29 2020] [WPR21LA030] Cessna 310, Las Vegas/ NV

On October 29, 2020, about 0939 Pacific daylight time, a Cessna 310, N101G was destroyed when it was involved in an accident near Henderson, Nevada. The pilot and the passenger sustained fatal injuries. The airplane was operated as a Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 91 personal flight. The pilot departed North Las Vegas Airport (VGT), Las Vegas, Nevada at 0929 en route to Gillespie Field Airport (SEE), San Diego/El Cajon, California. At 0935, the pilot contacted Air Traffic Control (ATC), declared "engine-out" and requested to change the destination to Henderson Executive Airport (HND), Las Vegas, Nevada. About three minutes later, the airplane crashed 4.5 miles northwest of HND Airport. The airplane was secured for further examination.

Aircraft and OwneOperator Information

Category Data Category Data
Aircraft Make: Cessna Registration: N101G
Model/Series: 310 R Aircraft Category: Airplane
Amateur Built: No Operator:
Operating Certificate(s) Held: On-demand air taxi (135) Operator Designator Code:

Meteorological Information and Flight Plan

Category Data Category Data
Conditions at Accident Site: VMC Condition of Light: Day
Observation Facility, Elevation: KLAS,2180 ft msl Observation Time: 09:56 Local
Distance from Accident Site: 3 Nautical Miles Temperature/Dew Point: 20°C /-7°C
Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear Wind Speed/Gusts, Direction: / ,
Lowest Ceiling: None Visibility: 10 miles
Altimeter Setting: 30.2 inches Hg Type of Flight Plan Filed:
Departure Point: Las Vegas, NV (VGT) Destination: San Diego, CA (SEE)

Wreckage and Impact Information

Category Data Category Data
Crew Injuries: 1 Fatal Aircraft Damage: Destroyed
Passenger Injuries: 1 Fatal Aircraft Fire: On-ground
Ground Injuries: Aircraft Explosion: None
Total Injuries: 2 Fatal Latitude, Longitude: 36.026127,-115.19351
Generated by NTSB_bot Mk. 2
Docket: https://data.ntsb.gov/Docket?ProjectID=102215
PDF: http://data.ntsb.gov/carol-repgen/api/Aviation/ReportMain/GeneratePreliminaryReport/102215/pdf
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2020.11.07 12:03 remote-enthusiast List of 74 remote jobs from last couple of days

Hello friends! These are the open remote positions I've found that were published today. See you tomorrow! Bleep blop 🤖
submitted by remote-enthusiast to remotedaily [link] [comments]


2020.11.06 12:03 remote-enthusiast Collected 60 jobs, enjoy!

Hello friends! These are the open remote positions I've found that were published today. See you tomorrow! Bleep blop 🤖
submitted by remote-enthusiast to remotedaily [link] [comments]


2020.11.04 12:03 remote-enthusiast List of 62 remote jobs - (non)tech

Hello friends! These are the open remote positions I've found that were published today. See you tomorrow! Bleep blop 🤖
submitted by remote-enthusiast to remotedaily [link] [comments]


2020.11.01 06:01 flesh_eating_turtle Masterpost on the People's Republic of China

Introduction
The People's Republic of China is the largest nation on Earth, and one of only four officially Marxist-Leninist states in the world today (alongside Vietnam, Laos, and Cuba). Over the last few years it has emerged as the world's leading economic power, and as a result has been subjected to near-constant demonization from Western media and propaganda outlets. In order to gain a proper understanding of the PRC, and to distinguish legitimate points of criticism (of which there are many) from Sinophobic slanders, it is necessary to go over the history, economy, and development of the country. As always, all sources are cited at the end.
Pre-Communist China
Before going over the revolutionary and post-revolutionary periods in China, it is necessary to understand what the country was like before the People's Republic was declared in 1949. According to a study in the Journal of Global Health, China at this time was "one of the most impoverished nations on Earth." To quote:
After a century of domination by Europeans, the fall of the Qing Empire was followed by partial Japanese occupation and a 38-year civil war. The vast majority of the population were engaged in subsistence agriculture, and a survey on the causes of death conducted in 1929-31 revealed that more than half of all deaths were caused by infectious diseases.
In a book on China and India, Nobel-winning economist Amartya Sen (Harvard University) notes that pre-communist China suffered from "high levels of mortality, undernutrition, and illiteracy." According to a study from the London School of Economics:
Western visitors to China in the 1920s and 1930s paint a picture where land scarcity is the predominant cause of high levels of hunger and poverty. Famines were widespread and severe and periods of hunger were a fact of life for many Chinese peasants. Ownership of land was highly unequal. The best estimates from this period suggest that, taken together, landlords (who were rich enough to avoid doing agricultural labor) and rich peasants (who did agricultural labor but also relied heavily on tenants and hire labor) typically owned upward of half the land though their share in the population typically did not exceed 10 percent. Poor peasants and agricultural laborers who owned little or no land formed the majority of the population.
Educational standards in Kuomintang China were horrible. According to a study in the journal Population Studies, in 1949 "more than 80 per cent of China's population was illiterate. Enrollment rates in primary and middle schools were abysmal: 20 and 6 per cent, respectively." In addition, women's rights were highly curtailed and patriarchal norms were widespread; according to a study in the journal Modern China, this trend continued as Kuomintang rule took root in Taiwan. All-in-all, KMT China can be safely said to have been one of the poorest societies in the world, plagued by starvation, patriarchy, and feudal oppression.
The Maoist Period (1949-1976)
After the PRC's founding was declared in 1949 (an event captured on film, for those who are interested), the Communists quickly set to work implementing their new agenda. According to the aforementioned study in the Journal of Global Health:
The Communists were quick to make good on promises of land-reform and establishment of a national “people’s” government. In 1950 a Marriage Law was enacted, providing equal rights for women, and the first National Health Congress established a focus on rural health, disease prevention through campaigns, and collaboration between western and traditional Chinese medicine.
According to the aforementioned study from the London School of Economics, the land reforms "led to the destruction of feudal power relationships in agriculture," leading to "universal and egalitarian access to land within localities." The reforms also led to a dramatic reduction in poverty and hunger. To quote:
Mao's legacy of universal and egalitarian access to land represents a key means of avoiding hunger. This helps us to understand how China has managed to escape the high levels of hunger which typify low income countries.
Health outcomes improved dramatically after the Communists took power. To quote from the Journal of Global Health:
China’s progress on communicable disease control (CDC) in the 30 years after establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC.
The aforementioned study in Population Studies, confirms these findings, noting that "China's growth in life expectancy between 1950 and 1980 ranks as among the most rapid sustained increases in documented global history." Another study, this one from the journal Health Services Evaluation, makes similar observations:
The health of China’s population improved dramatically during the first 30 years of the People’s Republic, established in 1949. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status, and by 1980, life expectancy (67 years) exceeded that of most similarly low-income nations by 7 years.
According to the Journal of Global Health, these improvements "can be attributed to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery," as well as "clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers."
Education also improved dramatically in the Maoist era. According to the aforementioned study in Population Studies:
China made large strides in primary and secondary education under Mao. [...] During the 1950s, capital investments in primary and secondary school infrastructure increased tenfold, and dramatic increases in attendance followed. Primary school enrolment rates rose to 80 per cent by 1958 and to 97 per cent by 1975, and secondary school rates increased to 46 per cent by 1977.
Amartya Sen makes similar observations, noting that literacy was greatly expanded under Mao:
China's breakthrough in the field of elementary education had already taken place before the process of economic reform was initiated at the end of the seventies. Census data indicate, for instance, that literacy rates in 1982 for the 15-19 age group were already as high as 96 percent for males and 85 percent for females.
These achievements of the Maoist era made possible China's later economic miracle. Amartya Sen states that "the accomplishments relating to education, healthcare, land reforms, and social change in the pre-reform [Maoist] period made significantly positive contributions to the achievements of the post-reform period. This is so not only in terms of their role in sustained high life expectancy and related achievements, but also in providing firm support for economic expansion based on market reforms." In his aforementioned book on the topic, Sen summarizes the achievements of the Maoist period thusly:
Because of its radical commitment to the elimination of poverty and to improving living conditions - a commitment in which Maoist as well as Marxist ideas and ideals played an important part - China did achieve many things… [including] The elimination of widespread hunger, illiteracy, and ill health… [a] remarkable reduction in chronic undernourishment… a dramatic reduction of infant and child mortality and a remarkable expansion of longevity.
Of course, with all of this said, it should not be denied that the Maoist era saw some extremely serious problems. Most notable is the Great Leap Forward, which was a colossal failure, contributing to the Great Chinese Famine. A study in the Journal of Health Economics notes that the famine had major long-term effects on health and economic development in China, leading to reduced population height, and having a negative impact on labor supply and earnings of famine survivors. Even still, it cannot be denied that the Maoist period brought massive gains to the Chinese people, massively improving health, education, and nutrition, and laying the groundwork for China's later economic development.
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics
In 1978, in response to a perceived lack of necessary economic progress, the Communist Party of China embarked on an ambitious reform program, leading to the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics (SWCC). These reform programs have produced impressive results; according to a 2020 study in the Journal of Economic Issues:
Succinctly, in terms of economic development, the model has simultaneously achieved the following, all on unprecedented scales, particularly since the turn of the century: rapid expansion in both investment and consumption, rapid rises in both productivity and the wage rate, and rapid increases in job creation. All these have provided the necessary material conditions for broader social development: the fundamental enhancement of the power of labor, the reconstruction of a publicly-funded comprehensive healthcare system, and the acceleration of the process of urbanization.
We may now go over some of these achievements in more detail. To begin with, poverty in the PRC has been dramatically reduced. According to a 2019 report from Philip Alston (UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights):
China’s achievements in alleviating extreme poverty in recent years, and in meeting highly ambitious targets for improving social well-being, have been extraordinary. [...] Over the past three decades, and with particular speed in recent years, China has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. This is a staggering achievement and is a credit to those responsible.
Economic growth has also increased dramatically. According to a study from the National Bureau of Economic Research, "reforms yielded a significant growth and structural transformation differential. GDP growth is 4.2 percentage points higher and the share of the labor force in agriculture is 23.9 percentage points lower compared with the continuation of the pre-1978 policies." These results are remarkably impressive, and indicate that SWCC has been successful at its principal goals of developing China's productive forces and meeting the needs of the proletariat.
For those who argue that China is no longer socialist, or that SWCC is simply a form of "state capitalism," I would remind them of what Lenin said in his pamphlet The Impending Catastrophe and How to Combat It:
You will find that, given a really revolutionary-democratic state, state-monopoly capitalism inevitably and unavoidably implies a step, and more than one step, towards socialism! For if a huge capitalist undertaking becomes a monopoly, it means that it serves the whole nation. If it has become a state monopoly, it means that the state (i.e., the armed organization of the population, the workers and peasants above all, provided there is revolutionary democracy) directs the whole undertaking. In whose interest? Either in the interest of the landowners and capitalists, in which case we have not a revolutionary-democratic, but a reactionary-bureaucratic state, an imperialist republic. Or in the interest of revolutionary democracy—and then it is a step towards socialism. For socialism is merely the next step forward from state-capitalist monopoly. Or, in other words, socialism is merely state-capitalist monopoly which is made to serve the interests of the whole people and has to that extent ceased to be capitalist monopoly.
This perfectly describes the situation in the People's Republic of China: while there are capitalists and markets, they are under the constant control of the Communist Party and the proletarian state. In addition, state-owned enterprises continue to play an essential role in the Chinese economy, as we will now see.
The Continued Role of Public Ownership
Contrary to the popular perception that China's growth has been the result of a transition to capitalism, the evidence shows that public ownership continues to play a key growth-driving role in the PRC's economy. A 2019 study in the Review of Radical Political Economics found that "a higher share of state-owned enterprises is favorable to long-run growth and tends to offset the adverse effect of economic downturns on the regional level." Similarly, the aforementioned study in the Journal of Economic Issues found that China's state-owned enterprises "appear to have performed well in terms of productivity and profitability." They also "appear to have fulfilled the functions of broadly-based social and economic development." In other words, public ownership continues to play a leading role in the Chinese economy, being a major driver of growth.
Healthcare in Modern China
In the Maoist period, China built one of the developing world's most robust public healthcare systems, based on rural primary care, barefoot doctors, and regular mass campaigns, known as "patriotic health campaigns." Since the beginning of the reform period, China's healthcare system has gone through a number of phases. After an unfortunate period of regression and privatization, China has spent the last decade making rapid progress towards a new universal healthcare system. A 2020 study in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) summarizes many of the goals and programs of China's recent health reforms:
Priority was given to expanding the scope and health service package of the basic insurance coverage, improving provider payment mechanisms, as well as increasing the financing level, fiscal subsidies and reimbursement rates. [...] The government has increased investment in primary care, with initiatives that include strengthening the infrastructure of primary healthcare (PHC) facilities, expanding human resources for primary care through incentives and supporting projects, establishing a general practitioner system and improving the capacity of PHC personnel through training and education, such as general practice training and continuous medical education programmes. [...] The ‘equalization of basic public health services’ policy implemented the national BPHS programme and the crucial public health service (CPHS) programme. [...] This policy seeks to achieve universal availability and promote a more equitable provision of basic health services to all urban and rural citizens.
The study goes on to note that China has made significant progress towards meeting its reform goals, and building a developed and equitable universal healthcare system:
During the past 10 years since the latest round of healthcare reform, China made steady progress in achieving the reform goals and UHC [i.e. universal health coverage].
In short, while China's healthcare system is not perfect, and is still in need of development, it is certainly moving in the right direction, following the general trend of the PRC's progress towards building a developed socialist society. As with many other aspects of China's socialist construction, this provides a model for other developing nations; according to the aforementioned BMJ study:
The lessons learnt from China could help other nations improve UHC in sustainable and adaptive ways, including continued political support, increased health financing and a strong PHC system as basis. The experience of the rapid development of UHC in China can provide a valuable mode for countries (mainly LMICs) planning their own path further on in the UHC journey.
This is another benefit of China's rise to prominence on the world stage. China demonstrates to the world that it is possible for a desperately poor country to rise from poverty, develop its economy, and meet the needs of its people.
Democracy and Popular Opinion in China
Polls conducted by Western researchers have consistently found that the Chinese people have a high level of support for their government, and for the Communist Party. A 2020 analysis by the China Data Lab (based at UC San Diego) found that support for the government has been increasing as of late. Similar results were found in a 2016 survey done by Harvard University's Ash Center:
The survey team found that compared to public opinion patterns in the U.S., in China there was very high satisfaction with the central government. In 2016, the last year the survey was conducted, 95.5 percent of respondents were either “relatively satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with Beijing. In contrast to these findings, Gallup reported in January of this year that their latest polling on U.S. citizen satisfaction with the American federal government revealed only 38 percent of respondents were satisfied with the federal government.
It is worth noting that the Chinese people are significantly less satisfied with local government than they are with the central government. Still, these results disprove the common notion that the Chinese people are ruled by an iron fisted regime that they do not want. Indeed, one official from the Ash Center noted that their findings "run counter to the general idea that these people are marginalized and disfavored by policies." As he states:
We tend to forget that for many in China, and in their lived experience of the past four decades, each day was better than the next.
In addition, most Chinese people are satisfied with the level of democracy in the PRC. A 2018 study in the International Political Science Review notes that "surveys suggest that the majority of Chinese people feel satisfied with the level of democracy in China." However, the study notes that "people who hold liberal democratic values" are more likely to be dissatisfied with the state of democracy in China. By contrast, those who hold a "substantive" view of democracy (i.e. one based on the idea that the state should focus on providing for the material needs of the people) are more satisfied.
Many of the other claims surrounding authoritarianism in China are highly overblown, to say the least. For instance, an article in Foreign Policy (the most orthodox of liberal policy journals) notes that the Chinese social credit system was massively exaggerated and distorted in Western media. An article in the publication Wired discusses how many of these overblown perceptions came to be. None of this is to suggest that China is a perfect democracy, with zero flaws; it certainly has issues relating to transparency, treatment of prisoners, etc. That being said, it is far from the totalitarian nightmare that imperialist media generally depicts it as being.
Chinese "Imperialism" and the Belt and Road Initiative
China is often accused (typically by Western pseudo-leftists) of being an "imperialist" state, due primarily to its investments in Africa, as part of the Belt and Road Initiative. These critics ignore the actual views of the African people themselves, who overwhelmingly approve of China's role in their economic development. In addition, the extent of Chinese involvement in Africa is smaller than often believed; according to a 2019 paper from the Center for Economic Policy Research, "China’s influence in Africa is much smaller than is generally believed, though its engagement on the continent is increasing. Chinese investment in Africa, while less extensive than often assumed, has the potential to generate jobs and development on the continent."
A 2018 study in the Review of Development Finance also found that Chinese investment in Africa raises incomes in the African nations that receive the investment, in a similar way to foreign investments by other nations. The author state that these results "suggest that the win-win deal China claims when investing in Africa may hold, and Chinese investment contributes to growth in Africa. Put differently, Chinese investment is mutually beneficial for both China and Africa."
For those interested in learning more, the economist Yanis Varoufakis discussed the topic in a recent lecture given at the Cambridge forum. He helpfully debunks a number of myths on the matter.
Conclusion
The People's Republic of China is undoubtedly the world's leading socialist state, and it is essential for all socialists to understand it. While there are many legitimate criticisms that one can make of China (from past economic errors to current human rights violations), it has made enormous progress in improving life for the people, as well as providing investments in developing countries in a mutually beneficial way. For this, it deserves the respect of all socialists and communists.
Sources
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2020.10.31 07:29 flesh_eating_turtle Masterpost on the People's Republic of China

Introduction
The People's Republic of China is the largest nation on Earth, and one of only four officially Marxist-Leninist states in the world today (alongside Vietnam, Laos, and Cuba). Over the last few years it has emerged as the world's leading economic power, and as a result has been subjected to near-constant demonization from Western media and propaganda outlets. In order to gain a proper understanding of the PRC, and to distinguish legitimate points of criticism (of which there are many) from Sinophobic slanders, it is necessary to go over the history, economy, and development of the country. As always, all sources are cited at the end.
Pre-Communist China
Before going over the revolutionary and post-revolutionary periods in China, it is necessary to understand what the country was like before the People's Republic was declared in 1949. According to a study in the Journal of Global Health, China at this time was "one of the most impoverished nations on Earth." To quote:
After a century of domination by Europeans, the fall of the Qing Empire was followed by partial Japanese occupation and a 38-year civil war. The vast majority of the population were engaged in subsistence agriculture, and a survey on the causes of death conducted in 1929-31 revealed that more than half of all deaths were caused by infectious diseases.
In a book on China and India, Nobel-winning economist Amartya Sen (Harvard University) notes that pre-communist China suffered from "high levels of mortality, undernutrition, and illiteracy." According to a study from the London School of Economics:
Western visitors to China in the 1920s and 1930s paint a picture where land scarcity is the predominant cause of high levels of hunger and poverty. Famines were widespread and severe and periods of hunger were a fact of life for many Chinese peasants. Ownership of land was highly unequal. The best estimates from this period suggest that, taken together, landlords (who were rich enough to avoid doing agricultural labor) and rich peasants (who did agricultural labor but also relied heavily on tenants and hire labor) typically owned upward of half the land though their share in the population typically did not exceed 10 percent. Poor peasants and agricultural laborers who owned little or no land formed the majority of the population.
Educational standards in Kuomintang China were horrible. According to a study in the journal Population Studies, in 1949 "more than 80 per cent of China's population was illiterate. Enrollment rates in primary and middle schools were abysmal: 20 and 6 per cent, respectively." In addition, women's rights were highly curtailed and patriarchal norms were widespread; according to a study in the journal Modern China, this trend continued as Kuomintang rule took root in Taiwan. All-in-all, KMT China can be safely said to have been one of the poorest societies in the world, plagued by starvation, patriarchy, and feudal oppression.
The Maoist Period (1949-1976)
After the PRC's founding was declared in 1949 (an event captured on film, for those who are interested), the Communists quickly set to work implementing their new agenda. According to the aforementioned study in the Journal of Global Health:
The Communists were quick to make good on promises of land-reform and establishment of a national “people’s” government. In 1950 a Marriage Law was enacted, providing equal rights for women, and the first National Health Congress established a focus on rural health, disease prevention through campaigns, and collaboration between western and traditional Chinese medicine.
According to the aforementioned study from the London School of Economics, the land reforms "led to the destruction of feudal power relationships in agriculture," leading to "universal and egalitarian access to land within localities." The reforms also led to a dramatic reduction in poverty and hunger. To quote:
Mao's legacy of universal and egalitarian access to land represents a key means of avoiding hunger. This helps us to understand how China has managed to escape the high levels of hunger which typify low income countries.
Health outcomes improved dramatically after the Communists took power. To quote from the Journal of Global Health:
China’s progress on communicable disease control (CDC) in the 30 years after establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC.
The aforementioned study in Population Studies, confirms these findings, noting that "China's growth in life expectancy between 1950 and 1980 ranks as among the most rapid sustained increases in documented global history." Another study, this one from the journal Health Services Evaluation, makes similar observations:
The health of China’s population improved dramatically during the first 30 years of the People’s Republic, established in 1949. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status, and by 1980, life expectancy (67 years) exceeded that of most similarly low-income nations by 7 years.
According to the Journal of Global Health, these improvements "can be attributed to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery," as well as "clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers."
Education also improved dramatically in the Maoist era. According to the aforementioned study in Population Studies:
China made large strides in primary and secondary education under Mao. [...] During the 1950s, capital investments in primary and secondary school infrastructure increased tenfold, and dramatic increases in attendance followed. Primary school enrolment rates rose to 80 per cent by 1958 and to 97 per cent by 1975, and secondary school rates increased to 46 per cent by 1977.
Amartya Sen makes similar observations, noting that literacy was greatly expanded under Mao:
China's breakthrough in the field of elementary education had already taken place before the process of economic reform was initiated at the end of the seventies. Census data indicate, for instance, that literacy rates in 1982 for the 15-19 age group were already as high as 96 percent for males and 85 percent for females.
These achievements of the Maoist era made possible China's later economic miracle. Amartya Sen states that "the accomplishments relating to education, healthcare, land reforms, and social change in the pre-reform [Maoist] period made significantly positive contributions to the achievements of the post-reform period. This is so not only in terms of their role in sustained high life expectancy and related achievements, but also in providing firm support for economic expansion based on market reforms." In his aforementioned book on the topic, Sen summarizes the achievements of the Maoist period thusly:
Because of its radical commitment to the elimination of poverty and to improving living conditions - a commitment in which Maoist as well as Marxist ideas and ideals played an important part - China did achieve many things… [including] The elimination of widespread hunger, illiteracy, and ill health… [a] remarkable reduction in chronic undernourishment… a dramatic reduction of infant and child mortality and a remarkable expansion of longevity.
Of course, with all of this said, it should not be denied that the Maoist era saw some extremely serious problems. Most notable is the Great Leap Forward, which was a colossal failure, contributing to the Great Chinese Famine. A study in the Journal of Health Economics notes that the famine had major long-term effects on health and economic development in China, leading to reduced population height, and having a negative impact on labor supply and earnings of famine survivors. Even still, it cannot be denied that the Maoist period brought massive gains to the Chinese people, massively improving health, education, and nutrition, and laying the groundwork for China's later economic development.
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics
In 1978, in response to a perceived lack of necessary economic progress, the Communist Party of China embarked on an ambitious reform program, leading to the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics (SWCC). These reform programs have produced impressive results; according to a 2020 study in the Journal of Economic Issues:
Succinctly, in terms of economic development, the model has simultaneously achieved the following, all on unprecedented scales, particularly since the turn of the century: rapid expansion in both investment and consumption, rapid rises in both productivity and the wage rate, and rapid increases in job creation. All these have provided the necessary material conditions for broader social development: the fundamental enhancement of the power of labor, the reconstruction of a publicly-funded comprehensive healthcare system, and the acceleration of the process of urbanization.
We may now go over some of these achievements in more detail. To begin with, poverty in the PRC has been dramatically reduced. According to a 2019 report from Philip Alston (UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights):
China’s achievements in alleviating extreme poverty in recent years, and in meeting highly ambitious targets for improving social well-being, have been extraordinary. [...] Over the past three decades, and with particular speed in recent years, China has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. This is a staggering achievement and is a credit to those responsible.
Economic growth has also increased dramatically. According to a study from the National Bureau of Economic Research, "reforms yielded a significant growth and structural transformation differential. GDP growth is 4.2 percentage points higher and the share of the labor force in agriculture is 23.9 percentage points lower compared with the continuation of the pre-1978 policies." These results are remarkably impressive, and indicate that SWCC has been successful at its principal goals of developing China's productive forces and meeting the needs of the proletariat.
For those who argue that China is no longer socialist, or that SWCC is simply a form of "state capitalism," I would remind them of what Lenin said in his pamphlet The Impending Catastrophe and How to Combat It:
You will find that, given a really revolutionary-democratic state, state-monopoly capitalism inevitably and unavoidably implies a step, and more than one step, towards socialism! For if a huge capitalist undertaking becomes a monopoly, it means that it serves the whole nation. If it has become a state monopoly, it means that the state (i.e., the armed organization of the population, the workers and peasants above all, provided there is revolutionary democracy) directs the whole undertaking. In whose interest? Either in the interest of the landowners and capitalists, in which case we have not a revolutionary-democratic, but a reactionary-bureaucratic state, an imperialist republic. Or in the interest of revolutionary democracy—and then it is a step towards socialism. For socialism is merely the next step forward from state-capitalist monopoly. Or, in other words, socialism is merely state-capitalist monopoly which is made to serve the interests of the whole people and has to that extent ceased to be capitalist monopoly.
This perfectly describes the situation in the People's Republic of China: while there are capitalists and markets, they are under the constant control of the Communist Party and the proletarian state. In addition, state-owned enterprises continue to play an essential role in the Chinese economy, as we will now see.
The Continued Role of Public Ownership
Contrary to the popular perception that China's growth has been the result of a transition to capitalism, the evidence shows that public ownership continues to play a key growth-driving role in the PRC's economy. A 2019 study in the Review of Radical Political Economics found that "a higher share of state-owned enterprises is favorable to long-run growth and tends to offset the adverse effect of economic downturns on the regional level." Similarly, the aforementioned study in the Journal of Economic Issues found that China's state-owned enterprises "appear to have performed well in terms of productivity and profitability." They also "appear to have fulfilled the functions of broadly-based social and economic development." In other words, public ownership continues to play a leading role in the Chinese economy, being a major driver of growth.
Healthcare in Modern China
In the Maoist period, China built one of the developing world's most robust public healthcare systems, based on rural primary care, barefoot doctors, and regular mass campaigns, known as "patriotic health campaigns." Since the beginning of the reform period, China's healthcare system has gone through a number of phases. After an unfortunate period of regression and privatization, China has spent the last decade making rapid progress towards a new universal healthcare system. A 2020 study in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) summarizes many of the goals and programs of China's recent health reforms:
Priority was given to expanding the scope and health service package of the basic insurance coverage, improving provider payment mechanisms, as well as increasing the financing level, fiscal subsidies and reimbursement rates. [...] The government has increased investment in primary care, with initiatives that include strengthening the infrastructure of primary healthcare (PHC) facilities, expanding human resources for primary care through incentives and supporting projects, establishing a general practitioner system and improving the capacity of PHC personnel through training and education, such as general practice training and continuous medical education programmes. [...] The ‘equalization of basic public health services’ policy implemented the national BPHS programme and the crucial public health service (CPHS) programme. [...] This policy seeks to achieve universal availability and promote a more equitable provision of basic health services to all urban and rural citizens.
The study goes on to note that China has made significant progress towards meeting its reform goals, and building a developed and equitable universal healthcare system:
During the past 10 years since the latest round of healthcare reform, China made steady progress in achieving the reform goals and UHC [i.e. universal health coverage].
In short, while China's healthcare system is not perfect, and is still in need of development, it is certainly moving in the right direction, following the general trend of the PRC's progress towards building a developed socialist society. As with many other aspects of China's socialist construction, this provides a model for other developing nations; according to the aforementioned BMJ study:
The lessons learnt from China could help other nations improve UHC in sustainable and adaptive ways, including continued political support, increased health financing and a strong PHC system as basis. The experience of the rapid development of UHC in China can provide a valuable mode for countries (mainly LMICs) planning their own path further on in the UHC journey.
This is another benefit of China's rise to prominence on the world stage. China demonstrates to the world that it is possible for a desperately poor country to rise from poverty, develop its economy, and meet the needs of its people.
Democracy and Popular Opinion in China
Polls conducted by Western researchers have consistently found that the Chinese people have a high level of support for their government, and for the Communist Party. A 2020 analysis by the China Data Lab (based at UC San Diego) found that support for the government has been increasing as of late. Similar results were found in a 2016 survey done by Harvard University's Ash Center:
The survey team found that compared to public opinion patterns in the U.S., in China there was very high satisfaction with the central government. In 2016, the last year the survey was conducted, 95.5 percent of respondents were either “relatively satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with Beijing. In contrast to these findings, Gallup reported in January of this year that their latest polling on U.S. citizen satisfaction with the American federal government revealed only 38 percent of respondents were satisfied with the federal government.
It is worth noting that the Chinese people are significantly less satisfied with local government than they are with the central government. Still, these results disprove the common notion that the Chinese people are ruled by an iron fisted regime that they do not want. Indeed, one official from the Ash Center noted that their findings "run counter to the general idea that these people are marginalized and disfavored by policies." As he states:
We tend to forget that for many in China, and in their lived experience of the past four decades, each day was better than the next.
In addition, most Chinese people are satisfied with the level of democracy in the PRC. A 2018 study in the International Political Science Review notes that "surveys suggest that the majority of Chinese people feel satisfied with the level of democracy in China." However, the study notes that "people who hold liberal democratic values" are more likely to be dissatisfied with the state of democracy in China. By contrast, those who hold a "substantive" view of democracy (i.e. one based on the idea that the state should focus on providing for the material needs of the people) are more satisfied.
Many of the other claims surrounding authoritarianism in China are highly overblown, to say the least. For instance, an article in Foreign Policy (the most orthodox of liberal policy journals) notes that the Chinese social credit system was massively exaggerated and distorted in Western media. An article in the publication Wired discusses how many of these overblown perceptions came to be. None of this is to suggest that China is a perfect democracy, with zero flaws; it certainly has issues relating to transparency, treatment of prisoners, etc. That being said, it is far from the totalitarian nightmare that imperialist media generally depicts it as being.
Chinese "Imperialism" and the Belt and Road Initiative
China is often accused (typically by Western pseudo-leftists) of being an "imperialist" state, due primarily to its investments in Africa, as part of the Belt and Road Initiative. These critics ignore the actual views of the African people themselves, who overwhelmingly approve of China's role in their economic development. In addition, the extent of Chinese involvement in Africa is smaller than often believed; according to a 2019 paper from the Center for Economic Policy Research, "China’s influence in Africa is much smaller than is generally believed, though its engagement on the continent is increasing. Chinese investment in Africa, while less extensive than often assumed, has the potential to generate jobs and development on the continent."
A 2018 study in the Review of Development Finance also found that Chinese investment in Africa raises incomes in the African nations that receive the investment, in a similar way to foreign investments by other nations. The author state that these results "suggest that the win-win deal China claims when investing in Africa may hold, and Chinese investment contributes to growth in Africa. Put differently, Chinese investment is mutually beneficial for both China and Africa."
For those interested in learning more, the economist Yanis Varoufakis discussed the topic in a recent lecture given at the Cambridge forum. He helpfully debunks a number of myths on the matter.
Conclusion
The People's Republic of China is undoubtedly the world's leading socialist state, and it is essential for all socialists to understand it. While there are many legitimate criticisms that one can make of China (from past economic errors to current human rights violations), it has made enormous progress in improving life for the people, as well as providing investments in developing countries in a mutually beneficial way. For this, it deserves the respect of all socialists and communists.
Sources
submitted by flesh_eating_turtle to LateStageImperialism [link] [comments]


2020.10.31 07:28 flesh_eating_turtle Masterpost on the People's Republic of China

Introduction
The People's Republic of China is the largest nation on Earth, and one of only four officially Marxist-Leninist states in the world today (alongside Vietnam, Laos, and Cuba). Over the last few years it has emerged as the world's leading economic power, and as a result has been subjected to near-constant demonization from Western media and propaganda outlets. In order to gain a proper understanding of the PRC, and to distinguish legitimate points of criticism (of which there are many, particularly relating to political and civil rights) from Sinophobic slanders, it is necessary to go over the history, economy, and development of the country. As always, all sources are cited at the end.
Pre-Communist China
Before going over the revolutionary and post-revolutionary periods in China, it is necessary to understand what the country was like before the People's Republic was declared in 1949. According to a study in the Journal of Global Health, China at this time was "one of the most impoverished nations on Earth." To quote:
After a century of domination by Europeans, the fall of the Qing Empire was followed by partial Japanese occupation and a 38-year civil war. The vast majority of the population were engaged in subsistence agriculture, and a survey on the causes of death conducted in 1929-31 revealed that more than half of all deaths were caused by infectious diseases.
In a book on China and India, Nobel-winning economist Amartya Sen (Harvard University) notes that pre-communist China suffered from "high levels of mortality, undernutrition, and illiteracy." According to a study from the London School of Economics:
Western visitors to China in the 1920s and 1930s paint a picture where land scarcity is the predominant cause of high levels of hunger and poverty. Famines were widespread and severe and periods of hunger were a fact of life for many Chinese peasants. Ownership of land was highly unequal. The best estimates from this period suggest that, taken together, landlords (who were rich enough to avoid doing agricultural labor) and rich peasants (who did agricultural labor but also relied heavily on tenants and hire labor) typically owned upward of half the land though their share in the population typically did not exceed 10 percent. Poor peasants and agricultural laborers who owned little or no land formed the majority of the population.
Educational standards in Kuomintang China were horrible. According to a study in the journal Population Studies, in 1949 "more than 80 per cent of China's population was illiterate. Enrollment rates in primary and middle schools were abysmal: 20 and 6 per cent, respectively." In addition, women's rights were highly curtailed and patriarchal norms were widespread; according to a study in the journal Modern China, this trend continued as Kuomintang rule took root in Taiwan. All-in-all, KMT China can be safely said to have been one of the poorest societies in the world, plagued by starvation, patriarchy, and feudal oppression.
The Maoist Period (1949-1976)
After the PRC's founding was declared in 1949 (an event captured on film, for those who are interested), the Communists quickly set to work implementing their new agenda. According to the aforementioned study in the Journal of Global Health:
The Communists were quick to make good on promises of land-reform and establishment of a national “people’s” government. In 1950 a Marriage Law was enacted, providing equal rights for women, and the first National Health Congress established a focus on rural health, disease prevention through campaigns, and collaboration between western and traditional Chinese medicine.
According to the aforementioned study from the London School of Economics, the land reforms "led to the destruction of feudal power relationships in agriculture," leading to "universal and egalitarian access to land within localities." The reforms also led to a dramatic reduction in poverty and hunger. To quote:
Mao's legacy of universal and egalitarian access to land represents a key means of avoiding hunger. This helps us to understand how China has managed to escape the high levels of hunger which typify low income countries.
Health outcomes improved dramatically after the Communists took power. To quote from the Journal of Global Health:
China’s progress on communicable disease control (CDC) in the 30 years after establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC.
The aforementioned study in Population Studies, confirms these findings, noting that "China's growth in life expectancy between 1950 and 1980 ranks as among the most rapid sustained increases in documented global history." Another study, this one from the journal Health Services Evaluation, makes similar observations:
The health of China’s population improved dramatically during the first 30 years of the People’s Republic, established in 1949. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status, and by 1980, life expectancy (67 years) exceeded that of most similarly low-income nations by 7 years.
According to the Journal of Global Health, these improvements "can be attributed to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery," as well as "clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers."
Education also improved dramatically in the Maoist era. According to the aforementioned study in Population Studies:
China made large strides in primary and secondary education under Mao. [...] During the 1950s, capital investments in primary and secondary school infrastructure increased tenfold, and dramatic increases in attendance followed. Primary school enrolment rates rose to 80 per cent by 1958 and to 97 per cent by 1975, and secondary school rates increased to 46 per cent by 1977.
Amartya Sen makes similar observations, noting that literacy was greatly expanded under Mao:
China's breakthrough in the field of elementary education had already taken place before the process of economic reform was initiated at the end of the seventies. Census data indicate, for instance, that literacy rates in 1982 for the 15-19 age group were already as high as 96 percent for males and 85 percent for females.
These achievements of the Maoist era made possible China's later economic miracle. Amartya Sen states that "the accomplishments relating to education, healthcare, land reforms, and social change in the pre-reform [Maoist] period made significantly positive contributions to the achievements of the post-reform period. This is so not only in terms of their role in sustained high life expectancy and related achievements, but also in providing firm support for economic expansion based on market reforms." In his aforementioned book on the topic, Sen summarizes the achievements of the Maoist period thusly:
Because of its radical commitment to the elimination of poverty and to improving living conditions - a commitment in which Maoist as well as Marxist ideas and ideals played an important part - China did achieve many things… [including] The elimination of widespread hunger, illiteracy, and ill health… [a] remarkable reduction in chronic undernourishment… a dramatic reduction of infant and child mortality and a remarkable expansion of longevity.
Of course, with all of this said, it should not be denied that the Maoist era saw some extremely serious problems. Most notable is the Great Leap Forward, which was a colossal failure, contributing to the Great Chinese Famine. A study in the Journal of Health Economics notes that the famine had major long-term effects on health and economic development in China, leading to reduced population height, and having a negative impact on labor supply and earnings of famine survivors. Even still, it cannot be denied that the Maoist period brought massive gains to the Chinese people, massively improving health, education, and nutrition, and laying the groundwork for China's later economic development.
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics
In 1978, in response to a perceived lack of necessary economic progress, the Communist Party of China embarked on an ambitious reform program, leading to the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics (SWCC). These reform programs have produced impressive results; according to a 2020 study in the Journal of Economic Issues:
Succinctly, in terms of economic development, the model has simultaneously achieved the following, all on unprecedented scales, particularly since the turn of the century: rapid expansion in both investment and consumption, rapid rises in both productivity and the wage rate, and rapid increases in job creation. All these have provided the necessary material conditions for broader social development: the fundamental enhancement of the power of labor, the reconstruction of a publicly-funded comprehensive healthcare system, and the acceleration of the process of urbanization.
We may now go over some of these achievements in more detail. To begin with, poverty in the PRC has been dramatically reduced. According to a 2019 report from Philip Alston (UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights):
China’s achievements in alleviating extreme poverty in recent years, and in meeting highly ambitious targets for improving social well-being, have been extraordinary. [...] Over the past three decades, and with particular speed in recent years, China has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. This is a staggering achievement and is a credit to those responsible.
Economic growth has also increased dramatically. According to a study from the National Bureau of Economic Research, "reforms yielded a significant growth and structural transformation differential. GDP growth is 4.2 percentage points higher and the share of the labor force in agriculture is 23.9 percentage points lower compared with the continuation of the pre-1978 policies." These results are remarkably impressive, and indicate that SWCC has been successful at its principal goals of developing China's productive forces and meeting the needs of the proletariat.
For those who argue that China is no longer socialist, or that SWCC is simply a form of "state capitalism," I would remind them of what Lenin said in his pamphlet The Impending Catastrophe and How to Combat It:
You will find that, given a really revolutionary-democratic state, state-monopoly capitalism inevitably and unavoidably implies a step, and more than one step, towards socialism! For if a huge capitalist undertaking becomes a monopoly, it means that it serves the whole nation. If it has become a state monopoly, it means that the state (i.e., the armed organization of the population, the workers and peasants above all, provided there is revolutionary democracy) directs the whole undertaking. In whose interest? Either in the interest of the landowners and capitalists, in which case we have not a revolutionary-democratic, but a reactionary-bureaucratic state, an imperialist republic. Or in the interest of revolutionary democracy—and then it is a step towards socialism. For socialism is merely the next step forward from state-capitalist monopoly. Or, in other words, socialism is merely state-capitalist monopoly which is made to serve the interests of the whole people and has to that extent ceased to be capitalist monopoly.
This perfectly describes the situation in the People's Republic of China: while there are capitalists and markets, they are under the constant control of the Communist Party and the proletarian state. In addition, state-owned enterprises continue to play an essential role in the Chinese economy, as we will now see.
The Continued Role of Public Ownership
Contrary to the popular perception that China's growth has been the result of a transition to capitalism, the evidence shows that public ownership continues to play a key growth-driving role in the PRC's economy. A 2019 study in the Review of Radical Political Economics found that "a higher share of state-owned enterprises is favorable to long-run growth and tends to offset the adverse effect of economic downturns on the regional level." Similarly, the aforementioned study in the Journal of Economic Issues found that China's state-owned enterprises "appear to have performed well in terms of productivity and profitability." They also "appear to have fulfilled the functions of broadly-based social and economic development." In other words, public ownership continues to play a leading role in the Chinese economy, being a major driver of growth.
Healthcare in Modern China
In the Maoist period, China built one of the developing world's most robust public healthcare systems, based on rural primary care, barefoot doctors, and regular mass campaigns, known as "patriotic health campaigns." Since the beginning of the reform period, China's healthcare system has gone through a number of phases. After an unfortunate period of regression and privatization, China has spent the last decade making rapid progress towards a new universal healthcare system. A 2020 study in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) summarizes many of the goals and programs of China's recent health reforms:
Priority was given to expanding the scope and health service package of the basic insurance coverage, improving provider payment mechanisms, as well as increasing the financing level, fiscal subsidies and reimbursement rates. [...] The government has increased investment in primary care, with initiatives that include strengthening the infrastructure of primary healthcare (PHC) facilities, expanding human resources for primary care through incentives and supporting projects, establishing a general practitioner system and improving the capacity of PHC personnel through training and education, such as general practice training and continuous medical education programmes. [...] The ‘equalization of basic public health services’ policy implemented the national BPHS programme and the crucial public health service (CPHS) programme. [...] This policy seeks to achieve universal availability and promote a more equitable provision of basic health services to all urban and rural citizens.
The study goes on to note that China has made significant progress towards meeting its reform goals, and building a developed and equitable universal healthcare system:
During the past 10 years since the latest round of healthcare reform, China made steady progress in achieving the reform goals and UHC [i.e. universal health coverage].
In short, while China's healthcare system is not perfect, and is still in need of development, it is certainly moving in the right direction, following the general trend of the PRC's progress towards building a developed socialist society. As with many other aspects of China's socialist construction, this provides a model for other developing nations; according to the aforementioned BMJ study:
The lessons learnt from China could help other nations improve UHC in sustainable and adaptive ways, including continued political support, increased health financing and a strong PHC system as basis. The experience of the rapid development of UHC in China can provide a valuable mode for countries (mainly LMICs) planning their own path further on in the UHC journey.
This is another benefit of China's rise to prominence on the world stage. China demonstrates to the world that it is possible for a desperately poor country to rise from poverty, develop its economy, and meet the needs of its people.
Democracy and Popular Opinion in China
Polls conducted by Western researchers have consistently found that the Chinese people have a high level of support for their government, and for the Communist Party. A 2020 analysis by the China Data Lab (based at UC San Diego) found that support for the government has been increasing as of late. Similar results were found in a 2016 survey done by Harvard University's Ash Center:
The survey team found that compared to public opinion patterns in the U.S., in China there was very high satisfaction with the central government. In 2016, the last year the survey was conducted, 95.5 percent of respondents were either “relatively satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with Beijing. In contrast to these findings, Gallup reported in January of this year that their latest polling on U.S. citizen satisfaction with the American federal government revealed only 38 percent of respondents were satisfied with the federal government.
It is worth noting that the Chinese people are significantly less satisfied with local government than they are with the central government. This points to major issues with responsiveness and accountability at the local level, which must be addressed. Still, these results disprove the common notion that the Chinese people are ruled by an iron fisted regime that they do not want. Indeed, one official from the Ash Center noted that their findings "run counter to the general idea that these people are marginalized and disfavored by policies." As he states:
We tend to forget that for many in China, and in their lived experience of the past four decades, each day was better than the next.
In addition, most Chinese people are satisfied with the level of democracy in the PRC. A 2018 study in the International Political Science Review notes that "surveys suggest that the majority of Chinese people feel satisfied with the level of democracy in China." However, the study notes that "people who hold liberal democratic values" are more likely to be dissatisfied with the state of democracy in China. By contrast, those who hold a "substantive" view of democracy (i.e. one based on the idea that the state should focus on providing for the material needs of the people) are more satisfied.
Many of the other claims surrounding authoritarianism in China are highly overblown, to say the least. For instance, an article in Foreign Policy (the most orthodox of liberal policy journals) notes that the Chinese social credit system was massively exaggerated and distorted in Western media. An article in the publication Wired discusses how many of these overblown perceptions came to be. None of this is to suggest that China is a perfect democracy, with zero flaws; it certainly has issues relating to transparency, treatment of prisoners, etc. That being said, it is far from the totalitarian nightmare that imperialist media generally depicts it as being.
Chinese "Imperialism" and the Belt and Road Initiative
China is often accused of being an "imperialist" state, due primarily to its investments in Africa, as part of the Belt and Road Initiative. These critics ignore the actual views of the African people themselves, who overwhelmingly approve of China's role in their economic development. In addition, the extent of Chinese involvement in Africa is smaller than often believed; according to a 2019 paper from the Center for Economic Policy Research, "China’s influence in Africa is much smaller than is generally believed, though its engagement on the continent is increasing. Chinese investment in Africa, while less extensive than often assumed, has the potential to generate jobs and development on the continent."
A 2018 study in the Review of Development Finance also found that Chinese investment in Africa raises incomes in the African nations that receive the investment, in a similar way to foreign investments by other nations. The author state that these results "suggest that the win-win deal China claims when investing in Africa may hold, and Chinese investment contributes to growth in Africa. Put differently, Chinese investment is mutually beneficial for both China and Africa."
For those interested in learning more, the economist Yanis Varoufakis discussed the topic in a recent lecture given at the Cambridge forum. He helpfully debunks a number of myths on the matter.
Conclusion
The People's Republic of China is undoubtedly the world's leading socialist state, and it is essential for all socialists to understand it. While there are many legitimate criticisms that one can make of China (from past economic errors to current human rights violations), it has made enormous progress in improving life for the people, as well as providing investments in developing countries in a mutually beneficial way. For this, it deserves the respect of all socialists and communists.
Sources
submitted by flesh_eating_turtle to GenZedong [link] [comments]


2020.10.31 07:28 flesh_eating_turtle Masterpost on the People's Republic of China

Introduction
The People's Republic of China is the largest nation on Earth, and one of only four officially Marxist-Leninist states in the world today (alongside Vietnam, Laos, and Cuba). Over the last few years it has emerged as the world's leading economic power, and as a result has been subjected to near-constant demonization from Western media and propaganda outlets. In order to gain a proper understanding of the PRC, and to distinguish legitimate points of criticism (of which there are many) from Sinophobic slanders, it is necessary to go over the history, economy, and development of the country. As always, all sources are cited at the end.
Pre-Communist China
Before going over the revolutionary and post-revolutionary periods in China, it is necessary to understand what the country was like before the People's Republic was declared in 1949. According to a study in the Journal of Global Health, China at this time was "one of the most impoverished nations on Earth." To quote:
After a century of domination by Europeans, the fall of the Qing Empire was followed by partial Japanese occupation and a 38-year civil war. The vast majority of the population were engaged in subsistence agriculture, and a survey on the causes of death conducted in 1929-31 revealed that more than half of all deaths were caused by infectious diseases.
In a book on China and India, Nobel-winning economist Amartya Sen (Harvard University) notes that pre-communist China suffered from "high levels of mortality, undernutrition, and illiteracy." According to a study from the London School of Economics:
Western visitors to China in the 1920s and 1930s paint a picture where land scarcity is the predominant cause of high levels of hunger and poverty. Famines were widespread and severe and periods of hunger were a fact of life for many Chinese peasants. Ownership of land was highly unequal. The best estimates from this period suggest that, taken together, landlords (who were rich enough to avoid doing agricultural labor) and rich peasants (who did agricultural labor but also relied heavily on tenants and hire labor) typically owned upward of half the land though their share in the population typically did not exceed 10 percent. Poor peasants and agricultural laborers who owned little or no land formed the majority of the population.
Educational standards in Kuomintang China were horrible. According to a study in the journal Population Studies, in 1949 "more than 80 per cent of China's population was illiterate. Enrollment rates in primary and middle schools were abysmal: 20 and 6 per cent, respectively." In addition, women's rights were highly curtailed and patriarchal norms were widespread; according to a study in the journal Modern China, this trend continued as Kuomintang rule took root in Taiwan. All-in-all, KMT China can be safely said to have been one of the poorest societies in the world, plagued by starvation, patriarchy, and feudal oppression.
The Maoist Period (1949-1976)
After the PRC's founding was declared in 1949 (an event captured on film, for those who are interested), the Communists quickly set to work implementing their new agenda. According to the aforementioned study in the Journal of Global Health:
The Communists were quick to make good on promises of land-reform and establishment of a national “people’s” government. In 1950 a Marriage Law was enacted, providing equal rights for women, and the first National Health Congress established a focus on rural health, disease prevention through campaigns, and collaboration between western and traditional Chinese medicine.
According to the aforementioned study from the London School of Economics, the land reforms "led to the destruction of feudal power relationships in agriculture," leading to "universal and egalitarian access to land within localities." The reforms also led to a dramatic reduction in poverty and hunger. To quote:
Mao's legacy of universal and egalitarian access to land represents a key means of avoiding hunger. This helps us to understand how China has managed to escape the high levels of hunger which typify low income countries.
Health outcomes improved dramatically after the Communists took power. To quote from the Journal of Global Health:
China’s progress on communicable disease control (CDC) in the 30 years after establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC.
The aforementioned study in Population Studies, confirms these findings, noting that "China's growth in life expectancy between 1950 and 1980 ranks as among the most rapid sustained increases in documented global history." Another study, this one from the journal Health Services Evaluation, makes similar observations:
The health of China’s population improved dramatically during the first 30 years of the People’s Republic, established in 1949. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status, and by 1980, life expectancy (67 years) exceeded that of most similarly low-income nations by 7 years.
According to the Journal of Global Health, these improvements "can be attributed to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery," as well as "clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers."
Education also improved dramatically in the Maoist era. According to the aforementioned study in Population Studies:
China made large strides in primary and secondary education under Mao. [...] During the 1950s, capital investments in primary and secondary school infrastructure increased tenfold, and dramatic increases in attendance followed. Primary school enrolment rates rose to 80 per cent by 1958 and to 97 per cent by 1975, and secondary school rates increased to 46 per cent by 1977.
Amartya Sen makes similar observations, noting that literacy was greatly expanded under Mao:
China's breakthrough in the field of elementary education had already taken place before the process of economic reform was initiated at the end of the seventies. Census data indicate, for instance, that literacy rates in 1982 for the 15-19 age group were already as high as 96 percent for males and 85 percent for females.
These achievements of the Maoist era made possible China's later economic miracle. Amartya Sen states that "the accomplishments relating to education, healthcare, land reforms, and social change in the pre-reform [Maoist] period made significantly positive contributions to the achievements of the post-reform period. This is so not only in terms of their role in sustained high life expectancy and related achievements, but also in providing firm support for economic expansion based on market reforms." In his aforementioned book on the topic, Sen summarizes the achievements of the Maoist period thusly:
Because of its radical commitment to the elimination of poverty and to improving living conditions - a commitment in which Maoist as well as Marxist ideas and ideals played an important part - China did achieve many things… [including] The elimination of widespread hunger, illiteracy, and ill health… [a] remarkable reduction in chronic undernourishment… a dramatic reduction of infant and child mortality and a remarkable expansion of longevity.
Of course, with all of this said, it should not be denied that the Maoist era saw some extremely serious problems. Most notable is the Great Leap Forward, which was a colossal failure, contributing to the Great Chinese Famine. A study in the Journal of Health Economics notes that the famine had major long-term effects on health and economic development in China, leading to reduced population height, and having a negative impact on labor supply and earnings of famine survivors. Even still, it cannot be denied that the Maoist period brought massive gains to the Chinese people, massively improving health, education, and nutrition, and laying the groundwork for China's later economic development.
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics
In 1978, in response to a perceived lack of necessary economic progress, the Communist Party of China embarked on an ambitious reform program, leading to the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics (SWCC). These reform programs have produced impressive results; according to a 2020 study in the Journal of Economic Issues:
Succinctly, in terms of economic development, the model has simultaneously achieved the following, all on unprecedented scales, particularly since the turn of the century: rapid expansion in both investment and consumption, rapid rises in both productivity and the wage rate, and rapid increases in job creation. All these have provided the necessary material conditions for broader social development: the fundamental enhancement of the power of labor, the reconstruction of a publicly-funded comprehensive healthcare system, and the acceleration of the process of urbanization.
We may now go over some of these achievements in more detail. To begin with, poverty in the PRC has been dramatically reduced. According to a 2019 report from Philip Alston (UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights):
China’s achievements in alleviating extreme poverty in recent years, and in meeting highly ambitious targets for improving social well-being, have been extraordinary. [...] Over the past three decades, and with particular speed in recent years, China has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. This is a staggering achievement and is a credit to those responsible.
Economic growth has also increased dramatically. According to a study from the National Bureau of Economic Research, "reforms yielded a significant growth and structural transformation differential. GDP growth is 4.2 percentage points higher and the share of the labor force in agriculture is 23.9 percentage points lower compared with the continuation of the pre-1978 policies." These results are remarkably impressive, and indicate that SWCC has been successful at its principal goals of developing China's productive forces and meeting the needs of the proletariat.
For those who argue that China is no longer socialist, or that SWCC is simply a form of "state capitalism," I would remind them of what Lenin said in his pamphlet The Impending Catastrophe and How to Combat It:
You will find that, given a really revolutionary-democratic state, state-monopoly capitalism inevitably and unavoidably implies a step, and more than one step, towards socialism! For if a huge capitalist undertaking becomes a monopoly, it means that it serves the whole nation. If it has become a state monopoly, it means that the state (i.e., the armed organization of the population, the workers and peasants above all, provided there is revolutionary democracy) directs the whole undertaking. In whose interest? Either in the interest of the landowners and capitalists, in which case we have not a revolutionary-democratic, but a reactionary-bureaucratic state, an imperialist republic. Or in the interest of revolutionary democracy—and then it is a step towards socialism. For socialism is merely the next step forward from state-capitalist monopoly. Or, in other words, socialism is merely state-capitalist monopoly which is made to serve the interests of the whole people and has to that extent ceased to be capitalist monopoly.
This perfectly describes the situation in the People's Republic of China: while there are capitalists and markets, they are under the constant control of the Communist Party and the proletarian state. In addition, state-owned enterprises continue to play an essential role in the Chinese economy, as we will now see.
The Continued Role of Public Ownership
Contrary to the popular perception that China's growth has been the result of a transition to capitalism, the evidence shows that public ownership continues to play a key growth-driving role in the PRC's economy. A 2019 study in the Review of Radical Political Economics found that "a higher share of state-owned enterprises is favorable to long-run growth and tends to offset the adverse effect of economic downturns on the regional level." Similarly, the aforementioned study in the Journal of Economic Issues found that China's state-owned enterprises "appear to have performed well in terms of productivity and profitability." They also "appear to have fulfilled the functions of broadly-based social and economic development." In other words, public ownership continues to play a leading role in the Chinese economy, being a major driver of growth.
Healthcare in Modern China
In the Maoist period, China built one of the developing world's most robust public healthcare systems, based on rural primary care, barefoot doctors, and regular mass campaigns, known as "patriotic health campaigns." Since the beginning of the reform period, China's healthcare system has gone through a number of phases. After an unfortunate period of regression and privatization, China has spent the last decade making rapid progress towards a new universal healthcare system. A 2020 study in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) summarizes many of the goals and programs of China's recent health reforms:
Priority was given to expanding the scope and health service package of the basic insurance coverage, improving provider payment mechanisms, as well as increasing the financing level, fiscal subsidies and reimbursement rates. [...] The government has increased investment in primary care, with initiatives that include strengthening the infrastructure of primary healthcare (PHC) facilities, expanding human resources for primary care through incentives and supporting projects, establishing a general practitioner system and improving the capacity of PHC personnel through training and education, such as general practice training and continuous medical education programmes. [...] The ‘equalization of basic public health services’ policy implemented the national BPHS programme and the crucial public health service (CPHS) programme. [...] This policy seeks to achieve universal availability and promote a more equitable provision of basic health services to all urban and rural citizens.
The study goes on to note that China has made significant progress towards meeting its reform goals, and building a developed and equitable universal healthcare system:
During the past 10 years since the latest round of healthcare reform, China made steady progress in achieving the reform goals and UHC [i.e. universal health coverage].
In short, while China's healthcare system is not perfect, and is still in need of development, it is certainly moving in the right direction, following the general trend of the PRC's progress towards building a developed socialist society. As with many other aspects of China's socialist construction, this provides a model for other developing nations; according to the aforementioned BMJ study:
The lessons learnt from China could help other nations improve UHC in sustainable and adaptive ways, including continued political support, increased health financing and a strong PHC system as basis. The experience of the rapid development of UHC in China can provide a valuable mode for countries (mainly LMICs) planning their own path further on in the UHC journey.
This is another benefit of China's rise to prominence on the world stage. China demonstrates to the world that it is possible for a desperately poor country to rise from poverty, develop its economy, and meet the needs of its people.
Democracy and Popular Opinion in China
Polls conducted by Western researchers have consistently found that the Chinese people have a high level of support for their government, and for the Communist Party. A 2020 analysis by the China Data Lab (based at UC San Diego) found that support for the government has been increasing as of late. Similar results were found in a 2016 survey done by Harvard University's Ash Center:
The survey team found that compared to public opinion patterns in the U.S., in China there was very high satisfaction with the central government. In 2016, the last year the survey was conducted, 95.5 percent of respondents were either “relatively satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with Beijing. In contrast to these findings, Gallup reported in January of this year that their latest polling on U.S. citizen satisfaction with the American federal government revealed only 38 percent of respondents were satisfied with the federal government.
It is worth noting that the Chinese people are significantly less satisfied with local government than they are with the central government. Still, these results disprove the common notion that the Chinese people are ruled by an iron fisted regime that they do not want. Indeed, one official from the Ash Center noted that their findings "run counter to the general idea that these people are marginalized and disfavored by policies." As he states:
We tend to forget that for many in China, and in their lived experience of the past four decades, each day was better than the next.
In addition, most Chinese people are satisfied with the level of democracy in the PRC. A 2018 study in the International Political Science Review notes that "surveys suggest that the majority of Chinese people feel satisfied with the level of democracy in China." However, the study notes that "people who hold liberal democratic values" are more likely to be dissatisfied with the state of democracy in China. By contrast, those who hold a "substantive" view of democracy (i.e. one based on the idea that the state should focus on providing for the material needs of the people) are more satisfied.
Many of the other claims surrounding authoritarianism in China are highly overblown, to say the least. For instance, an article in Foreign Policy (the most orthodox of liberal policy journals) notes that the Chinese social credit system was massively exaggerated and distorted in Western media. An article in the publication Wired discusses how many of these overblown perceptions came to be. None of this is to suggest that China is a perfect democracy, with zero flaws; it certainly has issues relating to transparency, treatment of prisoners, etc. That being said, it is far from the totalitarian nightmare that imperialist media generally depicts it as being.
Chinese "Imperialism" and the Belt and Road Initiative
China is often accused (typically by Western pseudo-leftists) of being an "imperialist" state, due primarily to its investments in Africa, as part of the Belt and Road Initiative. These critics ignore the actual views of the African people themselves, who overwhelmingly approve of China's role in their economic development. In addition, the extent of Chinese involvement in Africa is smaller than often believed; according to a 2019 paper from the Center for Economic Policy Research, "China’s influence in Africa is much smaller than is generally believed, though its engagement on the continent is increasing. Chinese investment in Africa, while less extensive than often assumed, has the potential to generate jobs and development on the continent."
A 2018 study in the Review of Development Finance also found that Chinese investment in Africa raises incomes in the African nations that receive the investment, in a similar way to foreign investments by other nations. The author state that these results "suggest that the win-win deal China claims when investing in Africa may hold, and Chinese investment contributes to growth in Africa. Put differently, Chinese investment is mutually beneficial for both China and Africa."
For those interested in learning more, the economist Yanis Varoufakis discussed the topic in a recent lecture given at the Cambridge forum. He helpfully debunks a number of myths on the matter.
Conclusion
The People's Republic of China is undoubtedly the world's leading socialist state, and it is essential for all socialists to understand it. While there are many legitimate criticisms that one can make of China (from past economic errors to current human rights violations), it has made enormous progress in improving life for the people, as well as providing investments in developing countries in a mutually beneficial way. For this, it deserves the respect of all socialists and communists.
Sources
submitted by flesh_eating_turtle to AsianSocialists [link] [comments]


2020.10.31 07:28 flesh_eating_turtle Masterpost on the People's Republic of China

Introduction
The People's Republic of China is the largest nation on Earth, and one of only four officially Marxist-Leninist states in the world today (alongside Vietnam, Laos, and Cuba). Over the last few years it has emerged as the world's leading economic power, and as a result has been subjected to near-constant demonization from Western media and propaganda outlets. In order to gain a proper understanding of the PRC, and to distinguish legitimate points of criticism (of which there are many) from Sinophobic slanders, it is necessary to go over the history, economy, and development of the country. As always, all sources are cited at the end.
Pre-Communist China
Before going over the revolutionary and post-revolutionary periods in China, it is necessary to understand what the country was like before the People's Republic was declared in 1949. According to a study in the Journal of Global Health, China at this time was "one of the most impoverished nations on Earth." To quote:
After a century of domination by Europeans, the fall of the Qing Empire was followed by partial Japanese occupation and a 38-year civil war. The vast majority of the population were engaged in subsistence agriculture, and a survey on the causes of death conducted in 1929-31 revealed that more than half of all deaths were caused by infectious diseases.
In a book on China and India, Nobel-winning economist Amartya Sen (Harvard University) notes that pre-communist China suffered from "high levels of mortality, undernutrition, and illiteracy." According to a study from the London School of Economics:
Western visitors to China in the 1920s and 1930s paint a picture where land scarcity is the predominant cause of high levels of hunger and poverty. Famines were widespread and severe and periods of hunger were a fact of life for many Chinese peasants. Ownership of land was highly unequal. The best estimates from this period suggest that, taken together, landlords (who were rich enough to avoid doing agricultural labor) and rich peasants (who did agricultural labor but also relied heavily on tenants and hire labor) typically owned upward of half the land though their share in the population typically did not exceed 10 percent. Poor peasants and agricultural laborers who owned little or no land formed the majority of the population.
Educational standards in Kuomintang China were horrible. According to a study in the journal Population Studies, in 1949 "more than 80 per cent of China's population was illiterate. Enrollment rates in primary and middle schools were abysmal: 20 and 6 per cent, respectively." In addition, women's rights were highly curtailed and patriarchal norms were widespread; according to a study in the journal Modern China, this trend continued as Kuomintang rule took root in Taiwan. All-in-all, KMT China can be safely said to have been one of the poorest societies in the world, plagued by starvation, patriarchy, and feudal oppression.
The Maoist Period (1949-1976)
After the PRC's founding was declared in 1949 (an event captured on film, for those who are interested), the Communists quickly set to work implementing their new agenda. According to the aforementioned study in the Journal of Global Health:
The Communists were quick to make good on promises of land-reform and establishment of a national “people’s” government. In 1950 a Marriage Law was enacted, providing equal rights for women, and the first National Health Congress established a focus on rural health, disease prevention through campaigns, and collaboration between western and traditional Chinese medicine.
According to the aforementioned study from the London School of Economics, the land reforms "led to the destruction of feudal power relationships in agriculture," leading to "universal and egalitarian access to land within localities." The reforms also led to a dramatic reduction in poverty and hunger. To quote:
Mao's legacy of universal and egalitarian access to land represents a key means of avoiding hunger. This helps us to understand how China has managed to escape the high levels of hunger which typify low income countries.
Health outcomes improved dramatically after the Communists took power. To quote from the Journal of Global Health:
China’s progress on communicable disease control (CDC) in the 30 years after establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC.
The aforementioned study in Population Studies, confirms these findings, noting that "China's growth in life expectancy between 1950 and 1980 ranks as among the most rapid sustained increases in documented global history." Another study, this one from the journal Health Services Evaluation, makes similar observations:
The health of China’s population improved dramatically during the first 30 years of the People’s Republic, established in 1949. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status, and by 1980, life expectancy (67 years) exceeded that of most similarly low-income nations by 7 years.
According to the Journal of Global Health, these improvements "can be attributed to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery," as well as "clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers."
Education also improved dramatically in the Maoist era. According to the aforementioned study in Population Studies:
China made large strides in primary and secondary education under Mao. [...] During the 1950s, capital investments in primary and secondary school infrastructure increased tenfold, and dramatic increases in attendance followed. Primary school enrolment rates rose to 80 per cent by 1958 and to 97 per cent by 1975, and secondary school rates increased to 46 per cent by 1977.
Amartya Sen makes similar observations, noting that literacy was greatly expanded under Mao:
China's breakthrough in the field of elementary education had already taken place before the process of economic reform was initiated at the end of the seventies. Census data indicate, for instance, that literacy rates in 1982 for the 15-19 age group were already as high as 96 percent for males and 85 percent for females.
These achievements of the Maoist era made possible China's later economic miracle. Amartya Sen states that "the accomplishments relating to education, healthcare, land reforms, and social change in the pre-reform [Maoist] period made significantly positive contributions to the achievements of the post-reform period. This is so not only in terms of their role in sustained high life expectancy and related achievements, but also in providing firm support for economic expansion based on market reforms." In his aforementioned book on the topic, Sen summarizes the achievements of the Maoist period thusly:
Because of its radical commitment to the elimination of poverty and to improving living conditions - a commitment in which Maoist as well as Marxist ideas and ideals played an important part - China did achieve many things… [including] The elimination of widespread hunger, illiteracy, and ill health… [a] remarkable reduction in chronic undernourishment… a dramatic reduction of infant and child mortality and a remarkable expansion of longevity.
Of course, with all of this said, it should not be denied that the Maoist era saw some extremely serious problems. Most notable is the Great Leap Forward, which was a colossal failure, contributing to the Great Chinese Famine. A study in the Journal of Health Economics notes that the famine had major long-term effects on health and economic development in China, leading to reduced population height, and having a negative impact on labor supply and earnings of famine survivors. Even still, it cannot be denied that the Maoist period brought massive gains to the Chinese people, massively improving health, education, and nutrition, and laying the groundwork for China's later economic development.
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics
In 1978, in response to a perceived lack of necessary economic progress, the Communist Party of China embarked on an ambitious reform program, leading to the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics (SWCC). These reform programs have produced impressive results; according to a 2020 study in the Journal of Economic Issues:
Succinctly, in terms of economic development, the model has simultaneously achieved the following, all on unprecedented scales, particularly since the turn of the century: rapid expansion in both investment and consumption, rapid rises in both productivity and the wage rate, and rapid increases in job creation. All these have provided the necessary material conditions for broader social development: the fundamental enhancement of the power of labor, the reconstruction of a publicly-funded comprehensive healthcare system, and the acceleration of the process of urbanization.
We may now go over some of these achievements in more detail. To begin with, poverty in the PRC has been dramatically reduced. According to a 2019 report from Philip Alston (UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights):
China’s achievements in alleviating extreme poverty in recent years, and in meeting highly ambitious targets for improving social well-being, have been extraordinary. [...] Over the past three decades, and with particular speed in recent years, China has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. This is a staggering achievement and is a credit to those responsible.
Economic growth has also increased dramatically. According to a study from the National Bureau of Economic Research, "reforms yielded a significant growth and structural transformation differential. GDP growth is 4.2 percentage points higher and the share of the labor force in agriculture is 23.9 percentage points lower compared with the continuation of the pre-1978 policies." These results are remarkably impressive, and indicate that SWCC has been successful at its principal goals of developing China's productive forces and meeting the needs of the proletariat.
For those who argue that China is no longer socialist, or that SWCC is simply a form of "state capitalism," I would remind them of what Lenin said in his pamphlet The Impending Catastrophe and How to Combat It:
You will find that, given a really revolutionary-democratic state, state-monopoly capitalism inevitably and unavoidably implies a step, and more than one step, towards socialism! For if a huge capitalist undertaking becomes a monopoly, it means that it serves the whole nation. If it has become a state monopoly, it means that the state (i.e., the armed organization of the population, the workers and peasants above all, provided there is revolutionary democracy) directs the whole undertaking. In whose interest? Either in the interest of the landowners and capitalists, in which case we have not a revolutionary-democratic, but a reactionary-bureaucratic state, an imperialist republic. Or in the interest of revolutionary democracy—and then it is a step towards socialism. For socialism is merely the next step forward from state-capitalist monopoly. Or, in other words, socialism is merely state-capitalist monopoly which is made to serve the interests of the whole people and has to that extent ceased to be capitalist monopoly.
This perfectly describes the situation in the People's Republic of China: while there are capitalists and markets, they are under the constant control of the Communist Party and the proletarian state. In addition, state-owned enterprises continue to play an essential role in the Chinese economy, as we will now see.
The Continued Role of Public Ownership
Contrary to the popular perception that China's growth has been the result of a transition to capitalism, the evidence shows that public ownership continues to play a key growth-driving role in the PRC's economy. A 2019 study in the Review of Radical Political Economics found that "a higher share of state-owned enterprises is favorable to long-run growth and tends to offset the adverse effect of economic downturns on the regional level." Similarly, the aforementioned study in the Journal of Economic Issues found that China's state-owned enterprises "appear to have performed well in terms of productivity and profitability." They also "appear to have fulfilled the functions of broadly-based social and economic development." In other words, public ownership continues to play a leading role in the Chinese economy, being a major driver of growth.
Healthcare in Modern China
In the Maoist period, China built one of the developing world's most robust public healthcare systems, based on rural primary care, barefoot doctors, and regular mass campaigns, known as "patriotic health campaigns." Since the beginning of the reform period, China's healthcare system has gone through a number of phases. After an unfortunate period of regression and privatization, China has spent the last decade making rapid progress towards a new universal healthcare system. A 2020 study in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) summarizes many of the goals and programs of China's recent health reforms:
Priority was given to expanding the scope and health service package of the basic insurance coverage, improving provider payment mechanisms, as well as increasing the financing level, fiscal subsidies and reimbursement rates. [...] The government has increased investment in primary care, with initiatives that include strengthening the infrastructure of primary healthcare (PHC) facilities, expanding human resources for primary care through incentives and supporting projects, establishing a general practitioner system and improving the capacity of PHC personnel through training and education, such as general practice training and continuous medical education programmes. [...] The ‘equalization of basic public health services’ policy implemented the national BPHS programme and the crucial public health service (CPHS) programme. [...] This policy seeks to achieve universal availability and promote a more equitable provision of basic health services to all urban and rural citizens.
The study goes on to note that China has made significant progress towards meeting its reform goals, and building a developed and equitable universal healthcare system:
During the past 10 years since the latest round of healthcare reform, China made steady progress in achieving the reform goals and UHC [i.e. universal health coverage].
In short, while China's healthcare system is not perfect, and is still in need of development, it is certainly moving in the right direction, following the general trend of the PRC's progress towards building a developed socialist society. As with many other aspects of China's socialist construction, this provides a model for other developing nations; according to the aforementioned BMJ study:
The lessons learnt from China could help other nations improve UHC in sustainable and adaptive ways, including continued political support, increased health financing and a strong PHC system as basis. The experience of the rapid development of UHC in China can provide a valuable mode for countries (mainly LMICs) planning their own path further on in the UHC journey.
This is another benefit of China's rise to prominence on the world stage. China demonstrates to the world that it is possible for a desperately poor country to rise from poverty, develop its economy, and meet the needs of its people.
Democracy and Popular Opinion in China
Polls conducted by Western researchers have consistently found that the Chinese people have a high level of support for their government, and for the Communist Party. A 2020 analysis by the China Data Lab (based at UC San Diego) found that support for the government has been increasing as of late. Similar results were found in a 2016 survey done by Harvard University's Ash Center:
The survey team found that compared to public opinion patterns in the U.S., in China there was very high satisfaction with the central government. In 2016, the last year the survey was conducted, 95.5 percent of respondents were either “relatively satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with Beijing. In contrast to these findings, Gallup reported in January of this year that their latest polling on U.S. citizen satisfaction with the American federal government revealed only 38 percent of respondents were satisfied with the federal government.
It is worth noting that the Chinese people are significantly less satisfied with local government than they are with the central government. Still, these results disprove the common notion that the Chinese people are ruled by an iron fisted regime that they do not want. Indeed, one official from the Ash Center noted that their findings "run counter to the general idea that these people are marginalized and disfavored by policies." As he states:
We tend to forget that for many in China, and in their lived experience of the past four decades, each day was better than the next.
In addition, most Chinese people are satisfied with the level of democracy in the PRC. A 2018 study in the International Political Science Review notes that "surveys suggest that the majority of Chinese people feel satisfied with the level of democracy in China." However, the study notes that "people who hold liberal democratic values" are more likely to be dissatisfied with the state of democracy in China. By contrast, those who hold a "substantive" view of democracy (i.e. one based on the idea that the state should focus on providing for the material needs of the people) are more satisfied.
Many of the other claims surrounding authoritarianism in China are highly overblown, to say the least. For instance, an article in Foreign Policy (the most orthodox of liberal policy journals) notes that the Chinese social credit system was massively exaggerated and distorted in Western media. An article in the publication Wired discusses how many of these overblown perceptions came to be. None of this is to suggest that China is a perfect democracy, with zero flaws; it certainly has issues relating to transparency, treatment of prisoners, etc. That being said, it is far from the totalitarian nightmare that imperialist media generally depicts it as being.
Chinese "Imperialism" and the Belt and Road Initiative
China is often accused (typically by Western pseudo-leftists) of being an "imperialist" state, due primarily to its investments in Africa, as part of the Belt and Road Initiative. These critics ignore the actual views of the African people themselves, who overwhelmingly approve of China's role in their economic development. In addition, the extent of Chinese involvement in Africa is smaller than often believed; according to a 2019 paper from the Center for Economic Policy Research, "China’s influence in Africa is much smaller than is generally believed, though its engagement on the continent is increasing. Chinese investment in Africa, while less extensive than often assumed, has the potential to generate jobs and development on the continent."
A 2018 study in the Review of Development Finance also found that Chinese investment in Africa raises incomes in the African nations that receive the investment, in a similar way to foreign investments by other nations. The author state that these results "suggest that the win-win deal China claims when investing in Africa may hold, and Chinese investment contributes to growth in Africa. Put differently, Chinese investment is mutually beneficial for both China and Africa."
For those interested in learning more, the economist Yanis Varoufakis discussed the topic in a recent lecture given at the Cambridge forum. He helpfully debunks a number of myths on the matter.
Conclusion
The People's Republic of China is undoubtedly the world's leading socialist state, and it is essential for all socialists to understand it. While there are many legitimate criticisms that one can make of China (from past economic errors to current human rights violations), it has made enormous progress in improving life for the people, as well as providing investments in developing countries in a mutually beneficial way. For this, it deserves the respect of all socialists and communists.
Sources
submitted by flesh_eating_turtle to sendinthetanks [link] [comments]


2020.10.31 07:27 flesh_eating_turtle Masterpost on the People's Republic of China

Introduction
The People's Republic of China is the largest nation on Earth, and one of only four officially Marxist-Leninist states in the world today (alongside Vietnam, Laos, and Cuba). Over the last few years it has emerged as the world's leading economic power, and as a result has been subjected to near-constant demonization from Western media and propaganda outlets. In order to gain a proper understanding of the PRC, and to distinguish legitimate points of criticism (of which there are many) from Sinophobic slanders, it is necessary to go over the history, economy, and development of the country. As always, all sources are cited at the end.
Pre-Communist China
Before going over the revolutionary and post-revolutionary periods in China, it is necessary to understand what the country was like before the People's Republic was declared in 1949. According to a study in the Journal of Global Health, China at this time was "one of the most impoverished nations on Earth." To quote:
After a century of domination by Europeans, the fall of the Qing Empire was followed by partial Japanese occupation and a 38-year civil war. The vast majority of the population were engaged in subsistence agriculture, and a survey on the causes of death conducted in 1929-31 revealed that more than half of all deaths were caused by infectious diseases.
In a book on China and India, Nobel-winning economist Amartya Sen (Harvard University) notes that pre-communist China suffered from "high levels of mortality, undernutrition, and illiteracy." According to a study from the London School of Economics:
Western visitors to China in the 1920s and 1930s paint a picture where land scarcity is the predominant cause of high levels of hunger and poverty. Famines were widespread and severe and periods of hunger were a fact of life for many Chinese peasants. Ownership of land was highly unequal. The best estimates from this period suggest that, taken together, landlords (who were rich enough to avoid doing agricultural labor) and rich peasants (who did agricultural labor but also relied heavily on tenants and hire labor) typically owned upward of half the land though their share in the population typically did not exceed 10 percent. Poor peasants and agricultural laborers who owned little or no land formed the majority of the population.
Educational standards in Kuomintang China were horrible. According to a study in the journal Population Studies, in 1949 "more than 80 per cent of China's population was illiterate. Enrollment rates in primary and middle schools were abysmal: 20 and 6 per cent, respectively." In addition, women's rights were highly curtailed and patriarchal norms were widespread; according to a study in the journal Modern China, this trend continued as Kuomintang rule took root in Taiwan. All-in-all, KMT China can be safely said to have been one of the poorest societies in the world, plagued by starvation, patriarchy, and feudal oppression.
The Maoist Period (1949-1976)
After the PRC's founding was declared in 1949 (an event captured on film, for those who are interested), the Communists quickly set to work implementing their new agenda. According to the aforementioned study in the Journal of Global Health:
The Communists were quick to make good on promises of land-reform and establishment of a national “people’s” government. In 1950 a Marriage Law was enacted, providing equal rights for women, and the first National Health Congress established a focus on rural health, disease prevention through campaigns, and collaboration between western and traditional Chinese medicine.
According to the aforementioned study from the London School of Economics, the land reforms "led to the destruction of feudal power relationships in agriculture," leading to "universal and egalitarian access to land within localities." The reforms also led to a dramatic reduction in poverty and hunger. To quote:
Mao's legacy of universal and egalitarian access to land represents a key means of avoiding hunger. This helps us to understand how China has managed to escape the high levels of hunger which typify low income countries.
Health outcomes improved dramatically after the Communists took power. To quote from the Journal of Global Health:
China’s progress on communicable disease control (CDC) in the 30 years after establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC.
The aforementioned study in Population Studies, confirms these findings, noting that "China's growth in life expectancy between 1950 and 1980 ranks as among the most rapid sustained increases in documented global history." Another study, this one from the journal Health Services Evaluation, makes similar observations:
The health of China’s population improved dramatically during the first 30 years of the People’s Republic, established in 1949. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status, and by 1980, life expectancy (67 years) exceeded that of most similarly low-income nations by 7 years.
According to the Journal of Global Health, these improvements "can be attributed to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery," as well as "clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers."
Education also improved dramatically in the Maoist era. According to the aforementioned study in Population Studies:
China made large strides in primary and secondary education under Mao. [...] During the 1950s, capital investments in primary and secondary school infrastructure increased tenfold, and dramatic increases in attendance followed. Primary school enrolment rates rose to 80 per cent by 1958 and to 97 per cent by 1975, and secondary school rates increased to 46 per cent by 1977.
Amartya Sen makes similar observations, noting that literacy was greatly expanded under Mao:
China's breakthrough in the field of elementary education had already taken place before the process of economic reform was initiated at the end of the seventies. Census data indicate, for instance, that literacy rates in 1982 for the 15-19 age group were already as high as 96 percent for males and 85 percent for females.
These achievements of the Maoist era made possible China's later economic miracle. Amartya Sen states that "the accomplishments relating to education, healthcare, land reforms, and social change in the pre-reform [Maoist] period made significantly positive contributions to the achievements of the post-reform period. This is so not only in terms of their role in sustained high life expectancy and related achievements, but also in providing firm support for economic expansion based on market reforms." In his aforementioned book on the topic, Sen summarizes the achievements of the Maoist period thusly:
Because of its radical commitment to the elimination of poverty and to improving living conditions - a commitment in which Maoist as well as Marxist ideas and ideals played an important part - China did achieve many things… [including] The elimination of widespread hunger, illiteracy, and ill health… [a] remarkable reduction in chronic undernourishment… a dramatic reduction of infant and child mortality and a remarkable expansion of longevity.
Of course, with all of this said, it should not be denied that the Maoist era saw some extremely serious problems. Most notable is the Great Leap Forward, which was a colossal failure, contributing to the Great Chinese Famine. A study in the Journal of Health Economics notes that the famine had major long-term effects on health and economic development in China, leading to reduced population height, and having a negative impact on labor supply and earnings of famine survivors. Even still, it cannot be denied that the Maoist period brought massive gains to the Chinese people, massively improving health, education, and nutrition, and laying the groundwork for China's later economic development.
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics
In 1978, in response to a perceived lack of necessary economic progress, the Communist Party of China embarked on an ambitious reform program, leading to the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics (SWCC). These reform programs have produced impressive results; according to a 2020 study in the Journal of Economic Issues:
Succinctly, in terms of economic development, the model has simultaneously achieved the following, all on unprecedented scales, particularly since the turn of the century: rapid expansion in both investment and consumption, rapid rises in both productivity and the wage rate, and rapid increases in job creation. All these have provided the necessary material conditions for broader social development: the fundamental enhancement of the power of labor, the reconstruction of a publicly-funded comprehensive healthcare system, and the acceleration of the process of urbanization.
We may now go over some of these achievements in more detail. To begin with, poverty in the PRC has been dramatically reduced. According to a 2019 report from Philip Alston (UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights):
China’s achievements in alleviating extreme poverty in recent years, and in meeting highly ambitious targets for improving social well-being, have been extraordinary. [...] Over the past three decades, and with particular speed in recent years, China has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. This is a staggering achievement and is a credit to those responsible.
Economic growth has also increased dramatically. According to a study from the National Bureau of Economic Research, "reforms yielded a significant growth and structural transformation differential. GDP growth is 4.2 percentage points higher and the share of the labor force in agriculture is 23.9 percentage points lower compared with the continuation of the pre-1978 policies." These results are remarkably impressive, and indicate that SWCC has been successful at its principal goals of developing China's productive forces and meeting the needs of the proletariat.
For those who argue that China is no longer socialist, or that SWCC is simply a form of "state capitalism," I would remind them of what Lenin said in his pamphlet The Impending Catastrophe and How to Combat It:
You will find that, given a really revolutionary-democratic state, state-monopoly capitalism inevitably and unavoidably implies a step, and more than one step, towards socialism! For if a huge capitalist undertaking becomes a monopoly, it means that it serves the whole nation. If it has become a state monopoly, it means that the state (i.e., the armed organization of the population, the workers and peasants above all, provided there is revolutionary democracy) directs the whole undertaking. In whose interest? Either in the interest of the landowners and capitalists, in which case we have not a revolutionary-democratic, but a reactionary-bureaucratic state, an imperialist republic. Or in the interest of revolutionary democracy—and then it is a step towards socialism. For socialism is merely the next step forward from state-capitalist monopoly. Or, in other words, socialism is merely state-capitalist monopoly which is made to serve the interests of the whole people and has to that extent ceased to be capitalist monopoly.
This perfectly describes the situation in the People's Republic of China: while there are capitalists and markets, they are under the constant control of the Communist Party and the proletarian state. In addition, state-owned enterprises continue to play an essential role in the Chinese economy, as we will now see.
The Continued Role of Public Ownership
Contrary to the popular perception that China's growth has been the result of a transition to capitalism, the evidence shows that public ownership continues to play a key growth-driving role in the PRC's economy. A 2019 study in the Review of Radical Political Economics found that "a higher share of state-owned enterprises is favorable to long-run growth and tends to offset the adverse effect of economic downturns on the regional level." Similarly, the aforementioned study in the Journal of Economic Issues found that China's state-owned enterprises "appear to have performed well in terms of productivity and profitability." They also "appear to have fulfilled the functions of broadly-based social and economic development." In other words, public ownership continues to play a leading role in the Chinese economy, being a major driver of growth.
Healthcare in Modern China
In the Maoist period, China built one of the developing world's most robust public healthcare systems, based on rural primary care, barefoot doctors, and regular mass campaigns, known as "patriotic health campaigns." Since the beginning of the reform period, China's healthcare system has gone through a number of phases. After an unfortunate period of regression and privatization, China has spent the last decade making rapid progress towards a new universal healthcare system. A 2020 study in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) summarizes many of the goals and programs of China's recent health reforms:
Priority was given to expanding the scope and health service package of the basic insurance coverage, improving provider payment mechanisms, as well as increasing the financing level, fiscal subsidies and reimbursement rates. [...] The government has increased investment in primary care, with initiatives that include strengthening the infrastructure of primary healthcare (PHC) facilities, expanding human resources for primary care through incentives and supporting projects, establishing a general practitioner system and improving the capacity of PHC personnel through training and education, such as general practice training and continuous medical education programmes. [...] The ‘equalization of basic public health services’ policy implemented the national BPHS programme and the crucial public health service (CPHS) programme. [...] This policy seeks to achieve universal availability and promote a more equitable provision of basic health services to all urban and rural citizens.
The study goes on to note that China has made significant progress towards meeting its reform goals, and building a developed and equitable universal healthcare system:
During the past 10 years since the latest round of healthcare reform, China made steady progress in achieving the reform goals and UHC [i.e. universal health coverage].
In short, while China's healthcare system is not perfect, and is still in need of development, it is certainly moving in the right direction, following the general trend of the PRC's progress towards building a developed socialist society. As with many other aspects of China's socialist construction, this provides a model for other developing nations; according to the aforementioned BMJ study:
The lessons learnt from China could help other nations improve UHC in sustainable and adaptive ways, including continued political support, increased health financing and a strong PHC system as basis. The experience of the rapid development of UHC in China can provide a valuable mode for countries (mainly LMICs) planning their own path further on in the UHC journey.
This is another benefit of China's rise to prominence on the world stage. China demonstrates to the world that it is possible for a desperately poor country to rise from poverty, develop its economy, and meet the needs of its people.
Democracy and Popular Opinion in China
Polls conducted by Western researchers have consistently found that the Chinese people have a high level of support for their government, and for the Communist Party. A 2020 analysis by the China Data Lab (based at UC San Diego) found that support for the government has been increasing as of late. Similar results were found in a 2016 survey done by Harvard University's Ash Center:
The survey team found that compared to public opinion patterns in the U.S., in China there was very high satisfaction with the central government. In 2016, the last year the survey was conducted, 95.5 percent of respondents were either “relatively satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with Beijing. In contrast to these findings, Gallup reported in January of this year that their latest polling on U.S. citizen satisfaction with the American federal government revealed only 38 percent of respondents were satisfied with the federal government.
It is worth noting that the Chinese people are significantly less satisfied with local government than they are with the central government. Still, these results disprove the common notion that the Chinese people are ruled by an iron fisted regime that they do not want. Indeed, one official from the Ash Center noted that their findings "run counter to the general idea that these people are marginalized and disfavored by policies." As he states:
We tend to forget that for many in China, and in their lived experience of the past four decades, each day was better than the next.
In addition, most Chinese people are satisfied with the level of democracy in the PRC. A 2018 study in the International Political Science Review notes that "surveys suggest that the majority of Chinese people feel satisfied with the level of democracy in China." However, the study notes that "people who hold liberal democratic values" are more likely to be dissatisfied with the state of democracy in China. By contrast, those who hold a "substantive" view of democracy (i.e. one based on the idea that the state should focus on providing for the material needs of the people) are more satisfied.
Many of the other claims surrounding authoritarianism in China are highly overblown, to say the least. For instance, an article in Foreign Policy (the most orthodox of liberal policy journals) notes that the Chinese social credit system was massively exaggerated and distorted in Western media. An article in the publication Wired discusses how many of these overblown perceptions came to be. None of this is to suggest that China is a perfect democracy, with zero flaws; it certainly has issues relating to transparency, treatment of prisoners, etc. That being said, it is far from the totalitarian nightmare that imperialist media generally depicts it as being.
Chinese "Imperialism" and the Belt and Road Initiative
China is often accused (typically by Western pseudo-leftists) of being an "imperialist" state, due primarily to its investments in Africa, as part of the Belt and Road Initiative. These critics ignore the actual views of the African people themselves, who overwhelmingly approve of China's role in their economic development. In addition, the extent of Chinese involvement in Africa is smaller than often believed; according to a 2019 paper from the Center for Economic Policy Research, "China’s influence in Africa is much smaller than is generally believed, though its engagement on the continent is increasing. Chinese investment in Africa, while less extensive than often assumed, has the potential to generate jobs and development on the continent."
A 2018 study in the Review of Development Finance also found that Chinese investment in Africa raises incomes in the African nations that receive the investment, in a similar way to foreign investments by other nations. The author state that these results "suggest that the win-win deal China claims when investing in Africa may hold, and Chinese investment contributes to growth in Africa. Put differently, Chinese investment is mutually beneficial for both China and Africa."
For those interested in learning more, the economist Yanis Varoufakis discussed the topic in a recent lecture given at the Cambridge forum. He helpfully debunks a number of myths on the matter.
Conclusion
The People's Republic of China is undoubtedly the world's leading socialist state, and it is essential for all socialists to understand it. While there are many legitimate criticisms that one can make of China (from past economic errors to current human rights violations), it has made enormous progress in improving life for the people, as well as providing investments in developing countries in a mutually beneficial way. For this, it deserves the respect of all socialists and communists.
Sources
submitted by flesh_eating_turtle to InformedTankie [link] [comments]


2020.10.31 07:24 flesh_eating_turtle Masterpost on the People's Republic of China

Introduction
The People's Republic of China is the largest nation on Earth, and one of only four officially Marxist-Leninist states in the world today (alongside Vietnam, Laos, and Cuba). Over the last few years it has emerged as the world's leading economic power, and as a result has been subjected to near-constant demonization from Western media and propaganda outlets. In order to gain a proper understanding of the PRC, and to distinguish legitimate points of criticism (of which there are many) from Sinophobic slanders, it is necessary to go over the history, economy, and development of the country. As always, all sources are cited at the end.
Pre-Communist China
Before going over the revolutionary and post-revolutionary periods in China, it is necessary to understand what the country was like before the People's Republic was declared in 1949. According to a study in the Journal of Global Health, China at this time was "one of the most impoverished nations on Earth." To quote:
After a century of domination by Europeans, the fall of the Qing Empire was followed by partial Japanese occupation and a 38-year civil war. The vast majority of the population were engaged in subsistence agriculture, and a survey on the causes of death conducted in 1929-31 revealed that more than half of all deaths were caused by infectious diseases.
In a book on China and India, Nobel-winning economist Amartya Sen (Harvard University) notes that pre-communist China suffered from "high levels of mortality, undernutrition, and illiteracy." According to a study from the London School of Economics:
Western visitors to China in the 1920s and 1930s paint a picture where land scarcity is the predominant cause of high levels of hunger and poverty. Famines were widespread and severe and periods of hunger were a fact of life for many Chinese peasants. Ownership of land was highly unequal. The best estimates from this period suggest that, taken together, landlords (who were rich enough to avoid doing agricultural labor) and rich peasants (who did agricultural labor but also relied heavily on tenants and hire labor) typically owned upward of half the land though their share in the population typically did not exceed 10 percent. Poor peasants and agricultural laborers who owned little or no land formed the majority of the population.
Educational standards in Kuomintang China were horrible. According to a study in the journal Population Studies, in 1949 "more than 80 per cent of China's population was illiterate. Enrollment rates in primary and middle schools were abysmal: 20 and 6 per cent, respectively." In addition, women's rights were highly curtailed and patriarchal norms were widespread; according to a study in the journal Modern China, this trend continued as Kuomintang rule took root in Taiwan. All-in-all, KMT China can be safely said to have been one of the poorest societies in the world, plagued by starvation, patriarchy, and feudal oppression.
The Maoist Period (1949-1976)
After the PRC's founding was declared in 1949 (an event captured on film, for those who are interested), the Communists quickly set to work implementing their new agenda. According to the aforementioned study in the Journal of Global Health:
The Communists were quick to make good on promises of land-reform and establishment of a national “people’s” government. In 1950 a Marriage Law was enacted, providing equal rights for women, and the first National Health Congress established a focus on rural health, disease prevention through campaigns, and collaboration between western and traditional Chinese medicine.
According to the aforementioned study from the London School of Economics, the land reforms "led to the destruction of feudal power relationships in agriculture," leading to "universal and egalitarian access to land within localities." The reforms also led to a dramatic reduction in poverty and hunger. To quote:
Mao's legacy of universal and egalitarian access to land represents a key means of avoiding hunger. This helps us to understand how China has managed to escape the high levels of hunger which typify low income countries.
Health outcomes improved dramatically after the Communists took power. To quote from the Journal of Global Health:
China’s progress on communicable disease control (CDC) in the 30 years after establishment of the People’s Republic in 1949 is widely regarded as remarkable. Life expectancy soared by around 30 years, infant mortality plummeted and smallpox, sexually transmitted diseases and many other infections were either eliminated or decreased massively in incidence, largely as a result of CDC.
The aforementioned study in Population Studies, confirms these findings, noting that "China's growth in life expectancy between 1950 and 1980 ranks as among the most rapid sustained increases in documented global history." Another study, this one from the journal Health Services Evaluation, makes similar observations:
The health of China’s population improved dramatically during the first 30 years of the People’s Republic, established in 1949. By the mid-1970s, China was already undergoing the epidemiologic transition, years ahead of other nations of similar economic status, and by 1980, life expectancy (67 years) exceeded that of most similarly low-income nations by 7 years.
According to the Journal of Global Health, these improvements "can be attributed to population mobilization, mass campaigns and a focus on sanitation, hygiene, clean water and clean delivery," as well as "clinical care and continuing public health programs to the masses through community-funded medical schemes and the establishment of community-based health workers."
Education also improved dramatically in the Maoist era. According to the aforementioned study in Population Studies:
China made large strides in primary and secondary education under Mao. [...] During the 1950s, capital investments in primary and secondary school infrastructure increased tenfold, and dramatic increases in attendance followed. Primary school enrolment rates rose to 80 per cent by 1958 and to 97 per cent by 1975, and secondary school rates increased to 46 per cent by 1977.
Amartya Sen makes similar observations, noting that literacy was greatly expanded under Mao:
China's breakthrough in the field of elementary education had already taken place before the process of economic reform was initiated at the end of the seventies. Census data indicate, for instance, that literacy rates in 1982 for the 15-19 age group were already as high as 96 percent for males and 85 percent for females.
These achievements of the Maoist era made possible China's later economic miracle. Amartya Sen states that "the accomplishments relating to education, healthcare, land reforms, and social change in the pre-reform [Maoist] period made significantly positive contributions to the achievements of the post-reform period. This is so not only in terms of their role in sustained high life expectancy and related achievements, but also in providing firm support for economic expansion based on market reforms." In his aforementioned book on the topic, Sen summarizes the achievements of the Maoist period thusly:
Because of its radical commitment to the elimination of poverty and to improving living conditions - a commitment in which Maoist as well as Marxist ideas and ideals played an important part - China did achieve many things… [including] The elimination of widespread hunger, illiteracy, and ill health… [a] remarkable reduction in chronic undernourishment… a dramatic reduction of infant and child mortality and a remarkable expansion of longevity.
Of course, with all of this said, it should not be denied that the Maoist era saw some extremely serious problems. Most notable is the Great Leap Forward, which was a colossal failure, contributing to the Great Chinese Famine. A study in the Journal of Health Economics notes that the famine had major long-term effects on health and economic development in China, leading to reduced population height, and having a negative impact on labor supply and earnings of famine survivors. Even still, it cannot be denied that the Maoist period brought massive gains to the Chinese people, massively improving health, education, and nutrition, and laying the groundwork for China's later economic development.
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics
In 1978, in response to a perceived lack of necessary economic progress, the Communist Party of China embarked on an ambitious reform program, leading to the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics (SWCC). These reform programs have produced impressive results; according to a 2020 study in the Journal of Economic Issues:
Succinctly, in terms of economic development, the model has simultaneously achieved the following, all on unprecedented scales, particularly since the turn of the century: rapid expansion in both investment and consumption, rapid rises in both productivity and the wage rate, and rapid increases in job creation. All these have provided the necessary material conditions for broader social development: the fundamental enhancement of the power of labor, the reconstruction of a publicly-funded comprehensive healthcare system, and the acceleration of the process of urbanization.
We may now go over some of these achievements in more detail. To begin with, poverty in the PRC has been dramatically reduced. According to a 2019 report from Philip Alston (UN Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights):
China’s achievements in alleviating extreme poverty in recent years, and in meeting highly ambitious targets for improving social well-being, have been extraordinary. [...] Over the past three decades, and with particular speed in recent years, China has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. This is a staggering achievement and is a credit to those responsible.
Economic growth has also increased dramatically. According to a study from the National Bureau of Economic Research, "reforms yielded a significant growth and structural transformation differential. GDP growth is 4.2 percentage points higher and the share of the labor force in agriculture is 23.9 percentage points lower compared with the continuation of the pre-1978 policies." These results are remarkably impressive, and indicate that SWCC has been successful at its principal goals of developing China's productive forces and meeting the needs of the proletariat.
For those who argue that China is no longer socialist, or that SWCC is simply a form of "state capitalism," I would remind them of what Lenin said in his pamphlet The Impending Catastrophe and How to Combat It:
You will find that, given a really revolutionary-democratic state, state-monopoly capitalism inevitably and unavoidably implies a step, and more than one step, towards socialism! For if a huge capitalist undertaking becomes a monopoly, it means that it serves the whole nation. If it has become a state monopoly, it means that the state (i.e., the armed organization of the population, the workers and peasants above all, provided there is revolutionary democracy) directs the whole undertaking. In whose interest? Either in the interest of the landowners and capitalists, in which case we have not a revolutionary-democratic, but a reactionary-bureaucratic state, an imperialist republic. Or in the interest of revolutionary democracy—and then it is a step towards socialism. For socialism is merely the next step forward from state-capitalist monopoly. Or, in other words, socialism is merely state-capitalist monopoly which is made to serve the interests of the whole people and has to that extent ceased to be capitalist monopoly.
This perfectly describes the situation in the People's Republic of China: while there are capitalists and markets, they are under the constant control of the Communist Party and the proletarian state. In addition, state-owned enterprises continue to play an essential role in the Chinese economy, as we will now see.
The Continued Role of Public Ownership
Contrary to the popular perception that China's growth has been the result of a transition to capitalism, the evidence shows that public ownership continues to play a key growth-driving role in the PRC's economy. A 2019 study in the Review of Radical Political Economics found that "a higher share of state-owned enterprises is favorable to long-run growth and tends to offset the adverse effect of economic downturns on the regional level." Similarly, the aforementioned study in the Journal of Economic Issues found that China's state-owned enterprises "appear to have performed well in terms of productivity and profitability." They also "appear to have fulfilled the functions of broadly-based social and economic development." In other words, public ownership continues to play a leading role in the Chinese economy, being a major driver of growth.
Healthcare in Modern China
In the Maoist period, China built one of the developing world's most robust public healthcare systems, based on rural primary care, barefoot doctors, and regular mass campaigns, known as "patriotic health campaigns." Since the beginning of the reform period, China's healthcare system has gone through a number of phases. After an unfortunate period of regression and privatization, China has spent the last decade making rapid progress towards a new universal healthcare system. A 2020 study in the British Medical Journal (BMJ) summarizes many of the goals and programs of China's recent health reforms:
Priority was given to expanding the scope and health service package of the basic insurance coverage, improving provider payment mechanisms, as well as increasing the financing level, fiscal subsidies and reimbursement rates. [...] The government has increased investment in primary care, with initiatives that include strengthening the infrastructure of primary healthcare (PHC) facilities, expanding human resources for primary care through incentives and supporting projects, establishing a general practitioner system and improving the capacity of PHC personnel through training and education, such as general practice training and continuous medical education programmes. [...] The ‘equalization of basic public health services’ policy implemented the national BPHS programme and the crucial public health service (CPHS) programme. [...] This policy seeks to achieve universal availability and promote a more equitable provision of basic health services to all urban and rural citizens.
The study goes on to note that China has made significant progress towards meeting its reform goals, and building a developed and equitable universal healthcare system:
During the past 10 years since the latest round of healthcare reform, China made steady progress in achieving the reform goals and UHC [i.e. universal health coverage].
In short, while China's healthcare system is not perfect, and is still in need of development, it is certainly moving in the right direction, following the general trend of the PRC's progress towards building a developed socialist society. As with many other aspects of China's socialist construction, this provides a model for other developing nations; according to the aforementioned BMJ study:
The lessons learnt from China could help other nations improve UHC in sustainable and adaptive ways, including continued political support, increased health financing and a strong PHC system as basis. The experience of the rapid development of UHC in China can provide a valuable mode for countries (mainly LMICs) planning their own path further on in the UHC journey.
This is another benefit of China's rise to prominence on the world stage. China demonstrates to the world that it is possible for a desperately poor country to rise from poverty, develop its economy, and meet the needs of its people.
Democracy and Popular Opinion in China
Polls conducted by Western researchers have consistently found that the Chinese people have a high level of support for their government, and for the Communist Party. A 2020 analysis by the China Data Lab (based at UC San Diego) found that support for the government has been increasing as of late. Similar results were found in a 2016 survey done by Harvard University's Ash Center:
The survey team found that compared to public opinion patterns in the U.S., in China there was very high satisfaction with the central government. In 2016, the last year the survey was conducted, 95.5 percent of respondents were either “relatively satisfied” or “highly satisfied” with Beijing. In contrast to these findings, Gallup reported in January of this year that their latest polling on U.S. citizen satisfaction with the American federal government revealed only 38 percent of respondents were satisfied with the federal government.
It is worth noting that the Chinese people are significantly less satisfied with local government than they are with the central government. Still, these results disprove the common notion that the Chinese people are ruled by an iron fisted regime that they do not want. Indeed, one official from the Ash Center noted that their findings "run counter to the general idea that these people are marginalized and disfavored by policies." As he states:
We tend to forget that for many in China, and in their lived experience of the past four decades, each day was better than the next.
In addition, most Chinese people are satisfied with the level of democracy in the PRC. A 2018 study in the International Political Science Review notes that "surveys suggest that the majority of Chinese people feel satisfied with the level of democracy in China." However, the study notes that "people who hold liberal democratic values" are more likely to be dissatisfied with the state of democracy in China. By contrast, those who hold a "substantive" view of democracy (i.e. one based on the idea that the state should focus on providing for the material needs of the people) are more satisfied.
Many of the other claims surrounding authoritarianism in China are highly overblown, to say the least. For instance, an article in Foreign Policy (the most orthodox of liberal policy journals) notes that the Chinese social credit system was massively exaggerated and distorted in Western media. An article in the publication Wired discusses how many of these overblown perceptions came to be. None of this is to suggest that China is a perfect democracy, with zero flaws; it certainly has issues relating to transparency, treatment of prisoners, etc. That being said, it is far from the totalitarian nightmare that imperialist media generally depicts it as being.
Chinese "Imperialism" and the Belt and Road Initiative
China is often accused (typically by Western pseudo-leftists) of being an "imperialist" state, due primarily to its investments in Africa, as part of the Belt and Road Initiative. These critics ignore the actual views of the African people themselves, who overwhelmingly approve of China's role in their economic development. In addition, the extent of Chinese involvement in Africa is smaller than often believed; according to a 2019 paper from the Center for Economic Policy Research, "China’s influence in Africa is much smaller than is generally believed, though its engagement on the continent is increasing. Chinese investment in Africa, while less extensive than often assumed, has the potential to generate jobs and development on the continent."
A 2018 study in the Review of Development Finance also found that Chinese investment in Africa raises incomes in the African nations that receive the investment, in a similar way to foreign investments by other nations. The author state that these results "suggest that the win-win deal China claims when investing in Africa may hold, and Chinese investment contributes to growth in Africa. Put differently, Chinese investment is mutually beneficial for both China and Africa."
For those interested in learning more, the economist Yanis Varoufakis discussed the topic in a recent lecture given at the Cambridge forum. He helpfully debunks a number of myths on the matter.
Conclusion
The People's Republic of China is undoubtedly the world's leading socialist state, and it is essential for all socialists to understand it. While there are many legitimate criticisms that one can make of China (from past economic errors to current human rights violations), it has made enormous progress in improving life for the people, as well as providing investments in developing countries in a mutually beneficial way. For this, it deserves the respect of all socialists and communists.
Sources
submitted by flesh_eating_turtle to u/flesh_eating_turtle [link] [comments]


2020.10.30 12:03 remote-enthusiast 55 remote jobs - (non)tech

Hello friends! These are the open remote positions I've found that were published today. See you tomorrow! Bleep blop 🤖
submitted by remote-enthusiast to remotedaily [link] [comments]


2020.10.23 12:03 remote-enthusiast I've collected 66 remote jobs

Hello friends! These are the open remote positions I've found that were published today. See you tomorrow! Bleep blop 🤖
submitted by remote-enthusiast to remotedaily [link] [comments]


2020.10.22 12:03 remote-enthusiast Collection of 50 remote jobs - (non)tech

Hello friends! These are the open remote positions I've found that were published today. See you tomorrow! Bleep blop 🤖
submitted by remote-enthusiast to remotedaily [link] [comments]


2020.10.17 20:37 _call-me-al_ Sat, Oct 17 2020

worldnews

New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern appears headed for big election win and 2nd term in early vote counting
Comments Link
Man decapitated near Paris and anti-terror probe launched, prosecutors say
Comments Link
Armenia launches missile attacks on Azerbaijan's Ganja
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news

Rapper Who Boasted on Youtube About Getting Rich From Unemployment Fraud Gets Arrested — for Unemployment Fraud
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Undelivered absentee ballots found in dumpster in Kentucky
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New Zealand election: Jacinda Ardern wins second term after rival concedes
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science

Older adults with severe apathy, or lack of interest in usual activities, may have a greater chance of developing dementia than people with few symptoms of apathy, according to a study. Apathy may be a very early sign of dementia and it can be evaluated with a brief questionnaire.
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Chinese Covid-19 vaccine candidate -- BBIBP-CorV -- that is expected to completely inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is safe and elicits an antibody response. No serious adverse events were reported within 28 days of the final vaccination
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Researchers have found that a common genetic deletion increases the risk of schizophrenia by 30-fold. Generating nerve cells with the deletion has showed the researchers why that is.
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space

ISS oxygen supply system fails in Russian module, but NASA and Roscosmos crew is OK
Comments Link
Betelgeuse is 25 percent closer than scientists thought
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Nokia secures $14.1m NASA funding to roll out 4G on the Moon
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Futurology

This Arkansas school turned solar savings into better teacher pay " in three years generated enough savings to transform the district’s $250,000 budget deficit into a $1.8 million surplus." " fueling pay raises that average between $2,000 and $3,000 per educator."
Comments Link
We face a growing array of problems that involve technology: nuclear weapons, data privacy concerns, using bots/fake news to influence elections. However, these are, in a sense, not several problems. They are facets of a single problem: the growing gap between our power and our wisdom.
Comments Link
Elon Musk Says the Sun Can Power All of Civilization. Of Course He's Right.
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AskReddit

What was your "Fuck this shit I'm out" moment?
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What was acceptable or normalised in the 80s or even 90s but it's completely unacceptable nowadays?
Comments Link
Welcome to area 52. The site where the military keeps all its stupidest things. What is kept there?
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todayilearned

TIL that in the late 90s with millions in the bank, David Lee Roth became a state-licensed EMT who went on hundreds of calls
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TIL the Simpsons episode "Itchy and Scratchy Land," was written in response to new, stringent censorship laws that were being put in place at the time. Fox had tried to prevent the inclusion of Itchy and Scratchy cartoons in the show, prompting the writers to make the episode as violent as possible.
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TIL Steve Bartman, a fan who in 2003 infamously but inadvertently interfered with a foul ball contributing to the Chicago Cubs' loss in playoffs that year, received a World Series ring when the Cubs won in 2016.
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dataisbeautiful

Map of India from all its roads [OC]
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[OC] PRIME NUMBERS: whenever n is a prime number, the path is changed 90 degrees counterclockwise
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Worldwide Strava usage, rendered with Aerialod [OC]
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Cooking

A website I made to help home cooks use up ingredients in their fridge!
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Do you have dishes you just gave up on?
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Did you eat any vegetarian meals growing up or was it all meat all the time in your house?
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food

[I ate] lobster grilled cheese with lobster bisque soup for dipping
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[Homemade] Blueberry muffin
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[Homemade] Jurassic Park sugar cookies
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movies

Michael B. Jordan, Outlier Society to Produce DC Movie 'Static Shock'
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My Grandmother kept a diary of the films she'd seen and gave them ratings. This was her diary from 1942.
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Official Discussion - The Trial of the Chicago 7 [SPOILERS]
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Art

Connection, Me, Oil on canvas, 2020
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"Potion of Memory", Me, Laser cut wood, 2019
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The Rooster (Chinese Zodiacs), Wang Junling, Digital, 2019
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television

Cartoon Network - Solomon Grundy Want Pants Too!
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'Superstore' Season 6 Promo - "Essential Workers"
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The X-Files Creator Chris Carter “Sorry” For How Series Ended (cross post from X Files)
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pics

Would-be President Joe Biden wrote this letter to a grieving mother
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Im a 28 year old man, and I regret nothing.
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Today's world is sad and cruel. Let's make it a better place. Here's a heart for ya.
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gifs

A green meteor off the coast of Australia
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This is why methanol fires can be so dangerous. They are invisible.
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They made a little whoopsie
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educationalgifs

Friction Welding, in slow motion.
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mildlyinteresting

My bite of oreo cheesecake sort of looks like a fat dog
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A candy chute so you can give candy out on Halloween while social distancing!
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The spiderweb on my pumpkin looks like plastic wrap.
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interestingasfuck

A green meteor off the coast of Australia
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Starry Night made with Paper Quilling
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Deep-fake AI Face Generation (None of those people exist!)
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funny

Samsung doing some damage.
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Outside of an adult store in San Diego
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Ob-la-died
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aww

I recently rescued Dudeson, he hated getting into my truck. figured out he’s a visual learner
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Our newborn baby girl has anime hair
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Fall:)
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Random Subreddit of the day: cpp_questions

These are its 3 top posts of all time:
If you offer to pay money to have someone do your homework or take your exams I will ban you.
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"C makes it easy to shoot yourself in the foot; C++ makes it harder, but when you do it blows your whole leg off"
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List of Resources to learn (modern) C++
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submitted by _call-me-al_ to RedditTLDR [link] [comments]


2020.10.17 16:09 JauneSiriusWhut BMW Z8 special

Since they are quite rare, let's make a special!
BMW Z8
2008
Denver - Blue
2009
Tokyo - Silver
2011
Toronto - Black
Toronto - Black
Sarasota - Red
Redwood City - Silver
2012
Zhukovka - Blue
London - Silver
2013
Montana (Swiss) - Silver
2014
Toronto - Black
Palm Beach - Black
Bissone - Silver
Los Angeles - Silver
Collina d'Oro - Covered
2015
Los Angeles - Black
Sagaponack - Blue
Calgary - Silver
Toronto - Silver
East Hampton - Silver
2016
Toronto - Black
Moscow - Black
Tokyo - Silver
2017
Newport Beach - Silver
2018
Toronto - Black
Seal Beach - Black
Boca Raton - Blue
(Hard top) Moscow - Grey
Paradise Valley - Silver
Carmel-by-the-Sea - Silver
Los Angeles - Silver
2019
Budapest - Black
Indio - Black
(Hard top) London - Blue
Denver - Red
Como - Silver
Los Angeles - Silver
Los Angeles - Silver
Clearwater - Silver
2020
Newport Beach - Covered

Alpina V8 Roadster (not sure if all are Alpinas, since the exterior is almost the same)
2009
(Hard top) Tokyo - Black
Tokyo - Blue
2011
Moscow - Blue
2014
Beverly Hills - Black
San Diego - Silver
2015
(Hard top) Santa Barbara - Black
2016
Newport Beach - Black
2018
Medina - Black
2019
Miami Beach - Silver
submitted by JauneSiriusWhut to StreetviewCarSpotting [link] [comments]


2020.10.16 14:00 boinabbc 25 New Engineering jobs

Job Title Company Location Country Skills
Senior Data Engineer Mount Sinai Health System New York United States Spark, SQL, Big Data
Software Engineer, Data Scientist Autodesk California United States Python, Machine Learning
Senior Azure Data Engineer Infosys Amsterdam Netherlands Azure
Sr. Data Engineer Centerfield Los Angeles United States SQL, Tableau, ETL
Data Engineer - Chicago XR Trading LLC Chicago United States Database, Python, ETL
Embedded Machine learning Systems Integration and Testing Engineer Qualcomm San Diego United States Python, Machine Learning, Deep Learning
Sr. Data Engineer Univision communications inc New York United States Machine Learning, Tableau, Looker
Cloud Data Engineer - Confirmé(e) - Lyon H/F Business & Decision Lyon (69) France Python, Java, QlikView
Data Engineer (m/w/d) BAUHAUS Mannheim Germany SQL
Big Data Engineer TMC Nederland Netherlands SQL, Big Data, Database
Senior Data Engineer Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago Chicago United States Java, ETL, Database
Senior Data Engineer (m/w/d) BAUHAUS Mannheim Germany SQL
Data Engineer - Solovis eVestment Irving United States SQL, Database, Azure
Data Engineer for the IU Data Foundation - IT EDS Hays Barcelona Spain SQL, Big Data, Hadoop
Senior Microstrategy Engineer (Data Engineer) - ZMS Zalando Berlin Germany Database
Innovation Intern - Data Analyst in Engineering Swiss Re Zürich Switzerland Python, Matlab, Machine Learning
eCom Senior Data Engineer PepsiCo San Francisco United States Python, SQL
Leader Data Engineering (H/F) GROUPE BPCE Charenton-le-Pont (94) France Azure, Spark, Scala
Data Engineer VetSource Portland United States Database, SQL, Scala
Leader Data Engineering (H/F) Natixis Charenton-le-Pont (94) France Spark, Azure, Scala
Senior Data Engineer aon corporation Singapore Singapore Spark, SQL, Hadoop
Cloud Data Engineer - H/F ChooseYourBoss 92200 Neuilly-sur-Seine France SQL
Machine Learning Engineer GMV Didcot United Kingdom Python, Machine Learning, Deep Learning
Business Intelligence Data Engineer Golden State Foods Irvine United States Database, Tableau, SQL
Leader Data Engineering F/H Apec.fr Charenton-le-Pont (94) France Azure, Scala, Spark
Hey, here are 25 New Engineering jobs. Let me know if you have any questions. Cheers!
submitted by boinabbc to EngineerJobs [link] [comments]